Vegantra Amayko Siaga

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Assalamualaikum Wr.Wb

  • NAME: Vegantra Amayko Siaga
  • NPM: 2106658811
  • EMAIL:

Hello! My Name is Vegantra Amayko Siaga, currently studying Mechanical Engineering KKI batch 2021. Currently i'm taking Numerical Method KKI class with Pak DAI.

Case Study of Hydrogen Storage Optimization

Optimization of hydrogen storage is a crucial component of hydrogen-based energy systems. To overcome the difficulties posed by hydrogen, such as its low density and high volatility, efficient and effective storage techniques are required. Several methods for enhancing hydrogen storage are listed below:

1. Compressed Gas Storage: One popular technique is to compress hydrogen gas and store it in high-pressure tanks. The compression process must be enhanced, tank materials must be improved, and leakage must be decreased in order to maximize this strategy. To increase storage capacity and enhance safety, advanced materials can be used, such as metal hydrides or carbon fiber composites.

2. Liquid Hydrogen Storage: This method of storing hydrogen involves cooling it to a very low temperature (-253°C). Utilizing cutting-edge insulation methods and materials, liquid hydrogen storage is optimized by reducing heat transmission and evaporation losses. The insulation and architecture of cryogenic storage tanks must be strong enough to resist the harsh conditions.

3. Storage of metal hydrides: Some metals, such as magnesium or complex metal alloys, have the ability to absorb hydrogen and store it inside their lattice structures. Enhancing the stability and durability of the materials used, as well as the kinetics of hydrogen absorption and desorption, are all important components in optimizing metal hydride storage.

4. Chemical hydride storage: Through chemical reactions, chemical compounds—also referred to as chemical hydrides—can store hydrogen. Finding molecules with a high hydrogen capacity, enhancing reaction kinetics, and creating efficient regeneration techniques are all necessary for optimizing chemical hydride storage.

5. Carbon-based materials, such as activated carbon or carbon nanotubes, can adsorb hydrogen on their surfaces and store it there. The capacity for hydrogen adsorption is being increased, the adsorption and desorption kinetics are being improved, and innovative carbon-based materials are being investigated for effective storage, among other optimization efforts.

6. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage: Through physical or chemical interactions, solid-state materials such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or porous materials can store hydrogen. Designing and synthesizing materials with large surface areas, fine-tuning pore architectures for increased hydrogen uptake, and enhancing stability and reversibility are all necessary to optimize solid-state storage.

7. System Integration: System-level integration must also be taken into account for optimizing hydrogen storage. It is crucial to create effective storage systems that integrate with technologies for the production, distribution, and use of hydrogen. A sustainable and dependable hydrogen supply chain can be achieved through integration with renewable energy sources.

Additionally, efforts to optimize hydrogen storage should concentrate on strengthening safety, cutting costs, raising storage capacity, boosting energy density, and attaining quick and dependable hydrogen delivery. Technology advancements for hydrogen storage depend on materials science, nanotechnology, and engineering research and development.

Constraint of Hydrogen Storage Optimization

Pressure Constraint

When considering hydrogen storage with pressure constraints, one option is to use materials that can store hydrogen at lower pressures. This can help reduce the need for high-pressure vessels and make the storage system more practical and cost-effective. It's important to note that while these materials offer the potential for hydrogen storage at lower pressures, trade-offs may exist in terms of storage capacity, kinetics, and temperature requirements. The selection of the most suitable material depends on a variety of factors, including the specific application, safety considerations, and overall system design. Carbon-based materials, such as activated carbon and carbon nanotubes, can store hydrogen through physisorption. By optimizing the pore structures and surface properties, these materials can achieve hydrogen storage at lower pressures After that, there’s constraint in general that we used.

Geometrical Constraint

When it comes to the geometrical constraints of hydrogen storage, there are a few considerations to keep in mind. These constraints arise from the need to store hydrogen in a compact and efficient manner. Here’s key geometrical constraints for hydrogen storage. Space Efficiency ; To maximize the storage capacity, it is desirable to have a storage system that occupies minimal space. This is particularly important for applications where space is limited, such as in vehicles or portable devices. Designing the storage system to minimize its footprint while maximizing the volume available for hydrogen storage is a crucial constraint.

Next is we used coding software to calculate the optimal geometry with mininum 1 liter of capacity

CodingGeometri1.jpeg CodingGeometri2.jpg

After that we can obtained, the optimal size for the radius is 5.4cm and height is 10.83cm

Strength Constraint

The strength constraint is an important consideration for hydrogen storage systems to ensure their structural integrity and safety. Hydrogen storage systems need to withstand the internal pressure exerted by the stored hydrogen without experiencing failure or leakage. Here are some key aspects of the strength constraint in hydrogen storage: Pressure Limit ; Hydrogen is typically stored at high pressures to achieve a sufficient storage capacity. The strength of the storage system, such as tanks or containers, must be designed to withstand these pressures. The pressure limit is determined by the material's yield strength, ultimate strength, and safety factors. It is important to select materials and designs that can safely contain the desired pressure range. Material Selection: The choice of materials for hydrogen storage systems is crucial to meet the strength constraint. Common materials used for high-pressure hydrogen storage include carbon fiber-reinforced composites, steel alloys, and certain polymers. These materials possess adequate strength and fracture toughness to withstand the pressure loads without failure. Design Considerations: The design of the hydrogen storage system should consider factors such as wall thickness, stress distribution, and geometric configuration to ensure structural integrity. Design features such as reinforcement ribs, domes, or stiffeners can enhance the structural strength and rigidity of the storage system.

Fatigue and Durability: Hydrogen storage systems may undergo cyclic loading and unloading during usage. Fatigue analysis is essential to assess the system's durability and potential for crack initiation and propagation. Careful consideration of material fatigue properties, stress concentrations, and design modifications can improve the system's resistance to fatigue failure. Safety Factors: Safety factors are applied to ensure an additional margin of strength beyond the calculated requirements. These factors account for uncertainties in material properties, manufacturing processes, and operational conditions. Regulatory standards and codes, such as those provided by certification organizations, often define the required safety factors for hydrogen storage systems. It is worth noting that the strength constraint is just one aspect of hydrogen storage system design. Other factors such as weight, cost, and practicality should also be considered in developing an optimized storage solution that meets both performance and safety requirements.

Cost Constraint

The cost constraint is an important consideration for hydrogen storage systems, as it impacts the economic viability and widespread adoption of hydrogen technologies. Here are some key aspects of the cost constraint in hydrogen storage. Material Cost: The choice of materials used in hydrogen storage systems can significantly impact the overall cost. Different materials, such as carbon fiber-reinforced composites, steel alloys, or polymers, have varying costs associated with their production, processing, and availability. Finding a balance between material cost and performance is crucial in achieving cost-effective storage solutions. Manufacturing Process: The manufacturing process for hydrogen storage systems can contribute to the overall cost. Factors such as production complexity, required equipment, labor, and energy inputs can influence the cost of fabrication. Optimizing the manufacturing process for efficiency and cost-effectiveness is essential in minimizing production expenses. Scale of Production: The scale of production plays a role in cost optimization. Large-scale production typically benefits from economies of scale, enabling reduced costs per unit. As the demand for hydrogen storage systems increases, it is anticipated that production volumes will rise, potentially leading to cost reductions through improved production efficiency.

Research and Development; The cost constraint can be addressed through ongoing research and development efforts. Innovations in materials, manufacturing techniques, and storage system designs can lead to cost-saving advancements. Investing in R&D to enhance the performance and cost-effectiveness of hydrogen storage technologies is crucial for meeting cost constraints. Integration with Infrastructure: The cost of integrating hydrogen storage systems into existing infrastructure, such as refueling stations or distribution networks, must be considered. Retrofitting existing infrastructure or establishing new infrastructure can add significant costs. Ensuring compatibility and minimizing the need for extensive infrastructure modifications can help manage overall costs. Lifecycle Costs: In addition to the upfront costs, it is essential to consider the lifecycle costs of hydrogen storage systems. This includes factors such as maintenance, durability, and system lifespan. Developing storage solutions with long-term reliability and minimal maintenance requirements can contribute to cost reduction over the system's lifetime. It's important to note that the cost constraint is dynamic and can vary depending on technological advancements, market conditions, and government policies. Continued research, development, and commercialization efforts aim to drive down costs and make hydrogen storage more economically competitive with alternative energy storage solutions.

We choose stainless steel 304 as the material because it's strengths and cost per unit volume. Before we calculate the total cost of this project, we need to calculate the minimum thickness of this hydrogen tanks

 r = 5.4e-2
 p = 800000
 t = 2.5e-3
 while t < 10e-3:
 hoop = (r * p)/(t)
 print('for thickness', t, 'hoop stress =', hoop, "Pa")
 t += 0.1e-3
 if hoop > 205e9:
for thickness 0.005 hoop stress = 8640000.0 Pa
for thickness 0.0051 hoop stress = 8470588.235294117 Pa
for thickness 0.005200000000000001 hoop stress = 8307692.307692307 Pa
for thickness 0.005300000000000001 hoop stress = 8150943.396226414 Pa
for thickness 0.005400000000000001 hoop stress = 7999999.999999998 Pa
for thickness 0.005500000000000001 hoop stress = 7854545.454545452 Pa
for thickness 0.005600000000000002 hoop stress = 7714285.714285712 Pa
for thickness 0.005700000000000002 hoop stress = 7578947.36842105 Pa
for thickness 0.005800000000000002 hoop stress = 7448275.862068962 Pa
for thickness 0.0059000000000000025 hoop stress = 7322033.898305082 Pa
for thickness 0.006000000000000003 hoop stress = 7199999.999999996 Pa
for thickness 0.006100000000000003 hoop stress = 7081967.213114751 Pa
for thickness 0.006200000000000003 hoop stress = 6967741.935483867 Pa
for thickness 0.0063000000000000035 hoop stress = 6857142.857142854 Pa
for thickness 0.006400000000000004 hoop stress = 6749999.999999996 Pa
for thickness 0.006500000000000004 hoop stress = 6646153.846153842 Pa
for thickness 0.006600000000000004 hoop stress = 6545454.545454541 Pa
for thickness 0.0067000000000000046 hoop stress = 6447761.194029846 Pa
for thickness 0.006800000000000005 hoop stress = 6352941.176470583 Pa
for thickness 0.006900000000000005 hoop stress = 6260869.565217387 Pa
for thickness 0.007000000000000005 hoop stress = 6171428.571428567 Pa
for thickness 0.007100000000000006 hoop stress = 6084507.042253517 Pa
for thickness 0.007200000000000006 hoop stress = 5999999.999999995 Pa
for thickness 0.007300000000000006 hoop stress = 5917808.219178077 Pa
for thickness 0.007400000000000006 hoop stress = 5837837.837837833 Pa
for thickness 0.007500000000000007 hoop stress = 5759999.999999995 Pa

Then we obtained from the results the possible thickness range is 5 to 7 mm. If we take the median we get 6 mm of wall thickness. Due to limited budget of Rp 500.000, we do research about the price of stainless steel plate with 6 mm thickness. After we calculate the total cost is Rp 212.905


In conclusion, optimization of hydrogen storage systems involves balancing various constraints and objectives to achieve efficient and effective storage solutions. Overall, optimization of hydrogen storage systems requires a multidisciplinary approach, considering technical, economic, safety, and environmental aspects. Ongoing research, technological advancements, and collaboration across various fields will continue to drive innovation and improve the performance and viability of hydrogen storage for a wide range of applications.