Sintha Rafakarima

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I am Sintha Rafakarima, a Mechanical Engineering student batch 2019. You can call me Sintha

Currently, taking ECS 2 as a course with Pak DAI and Prof Adi as the lecturers.

Name: Sintha Rafakarima NPM: 1906316244

Sustainability of Industries

Sintharm: explain "relation between sugar cane factory, automotive factory, and oil and gas company" and make it simple please This is what my ChatGPT responded to the interconnecting industries.

ChatGPT: The relation between sugar cane factory, automotive factory, and oil and gas company is that they are all part of a larger industrial system.

Sugar cane factories produce sugar, which can be used to make ethanol, a type of fuel. This ethanol can then be used by automotive factories to make cars that run on alternative fuels.

Oil and gas companies, on the other hand, produce fossil fuels, which are used to power cars and other machinery.

So, while the sugar cane factory and automotive factory are working towards creating more sustainable and environmentally friendly options, the oil and gas company is still producing traditional fossil fuels.

Overall, these three industries are all interconnected and contribute to the functioning of modern society, but they have different impacts on the environment and different levels of sustainability.

Sintharm: what is your references on your response?

ChatGPT: As an AI language model, I don't have personal beliefs or opinions, nor do I have references in the traditional sense. My response was based on general knowledge and understanding of the relationships and interconnections between different industries in the modern world. The information I provided can be found in a variety of sources such as textbooks, academic articles, news articles, and general information available online.

Name: Sintha Rafakarima NPM: 1906316244

Indonesia Climate Transparency

In 2022, a climate transparency report of Indonesia was made. After reading the report I wanted to highlight on the energy sector.

The energy sector donates 65% of the greenhouse gas emissions in Indonesia. And that the largest amount of Carbon Emissions of energy sector come from fuel combustion. And the fuel combustion is by fossil fuels, while renewables made up a small share of total primary energy mix. Fossil fuels (oil, coal, and gas) make up 71% of Indonesia’s energy mix. Solar, wind, geothermal and biomass, excluding traditional biomass, account for 22% of Indonesia’s energy supply.

Because of that I think that Indonesia needs a lot of manpower that can take advantages of using the renewable energy.

Read the Indonesia CLimate Transparency here: [1]

Thank You

Project Proposal

Regarding the writings before this, my project is about the CO2 Emissions simulation of EV. After reading a whole segment of electric vehicle and also about Carbon Emissions it is safe to say that using electric vehicle somehow reduce the carbon emissions. The use of electric vehicles (EVs) can provide several advantages in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions:

Lower Emissions: EVs emit fewer GHGs than traditional gas-powered vehicles. According to the US Department of Energy, an EV emits about half as much GHGs as a gas-powered vehicle on average. Renewable Energy: EVs can be powered by renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, which emit no GHGs during electricity generation. This means that the use of EVs can further reduce GHG emissions. Reduced Smog: EVs emit no tailpipe pollutants, which can help reduce smog and improve air quality, especially in urban areas. Increased Efficiency: EVs are more efficient than traditional gas-powered vehicles, as they convert a higher percentage of energy from the battery to power the vehicle. This means that less energy is wasted during operation, further reducing GHG emissions.

Sources: US Department of Energy. (n.d.). Electric Vehicle Benefits. Retrieved from Union of Concerned Scientists. (2021). Electric Vehicles 101. Retrieved from

And by using simulation that is known for a cost-effective way to simulate the kinematic and dynamic behaviours of vehicles in real-time. I can try to simulate and develop a simulation from OpenModelica to know the CO2 Emissions from Electric Vehicle.

Main Concern of Energy Conversion from ChatGPT POV

Sintha Marhaendra: what is the main concern of energy conversion right now? ChatGPT: The main concern of energy conversion right now is to shift away from fossil fuels and towards renewable sources of energy. Fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gas, are finite resources that contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases when burned. Renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, and biomass, are abundant and have the potential to provide a sustainable and clean source of energy.

One challenge in the shift towards renewable energy sources is the intermittency of some sources, such as solar and wind. This means that they are not always available, and energy storage technologies need to be developed to store energy when it is produced and make it available when it is needed. Another challenge is the need for infrastructure to support the transmission and distribution of renewable energy.

In addition to the technical challenges, there are also economic and social challenges in the transition to renewable energy. The cost of renewable energy technologies has been decreasing, but there are still barriers to their widespread adoption, such as the need for incentives and policies to encourage investment in renewable energy, and the need for education and awareness among consumers and communities.

Sintha Marhaendra: How do you think people can overcome it? ChatGPT: To overcome the challenges of transitioning to renewable energy, there are several steps that individuals, communities, and governments can take:

Promote awareness and education: Increasing public awareness and education about the benefits of renewable energy and the negative impacts of fossil fuels can help encourage people to support the transition to renewable energy. Develop and adopt policies: Governments can implement policies that incentivize the development and adoption of renewable energy, such as tax credits, subsidies, and regulations that promote the use of renewable energy. Invest in research and development: Continued investment in research and development of renewable energy technologies and energy storage solutions can help improve the efficiency, reliability, and cost-effectiveness of renewable energy. Support infrastructure development: Developing the necessary infrastructure, such as transmission lines, smart grids, and energy storage systems, can help support the integration of renewable energy into the grid. Encourage community participation: Encouraging community participation in the development and implementation of renewable energy projects can help build support for renewable energy and increase the likelihood of successful implementation. Support international cooperation: International cooperation and collaboration can help accelerate the transition to renewable energy by sharing knowledge, expertise, and resources. By taking these steps, individuals, communities, and governments can work together to overcome the challenges of transitioning to renewable energy and create a more sustainable future.

Sintha Marhaendra: Do you think that fossils fuels are decreasing? ChatGPT: Fossil fuels are finite resources, meaning that they have a limited quantity in the earth's crust. As these resources are extracted and burned for energy, they become depleted, leading to a decrease in the available reserves of fossil fuels.

However, the rate of decrease depends on many factors, including the demand for energy, the development and adoption of alternative energy sources, and the discovery of new fossil fuel reserves. While the use of fossil fuels continues to dominate the global energy mix, there is a growing awareness of the need to shift away from these non-renewable resources and towards renewable energy sources.

In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the use of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, and a corresponding decrease in the use of fossil fuels. This shift is being driven by a combination of factors, including declining costs of renewable energy technologies, government policies and incentives, and increased public awareness and demand for clean energy.

Despite this shift towards renewable energy, the use of fossil fuels is still expected to continue for several decades, as many countries still rely heavily on these resources to meet their energy needs. However, the trend towards renewable energy is expected to accelerate in the coming years, and eventually, the use of fossil fuels is likely to decline as renewable energy becomes increasingly cost-effective and widely available.

28th of February Class

In today's class Prof Adi told us about the basic of Pyrolysis by burning a paper and even though the fire is already off but if there is still oxygen near the burned paper the burning is always there because of oxidation. And Prof Adi told us the differences of Pyrolysis and ICE. That ICE fuels are liquid and Pyrolysis is solid. And both Pyrolysis and ICE has the same concept of burning that comes vibration. And that almost every energy comes from vibration. And even our laptop and cellphone has vibration so it can runs all day. And our signals will always be coming for the higher frequency. Prof Adi asked us about our opinion on Pyrolysis or the other topics. Prof Adi told us about that people who knows the benefits will knoe some ways to recycle the waste.

My project proposal video

Hi friends! this is my project proposal presentation vieo. As you can watch I wanted to simulate the engine of electric vehicle hope you enjoy my video

3rd of March Class

Today's class was lectured by Pak DAI assistants, because Pak DAI was not feeling good. today's session talked about Pyrolysis

- Biomass conversion is divided into biochemical and thermochemical. Where pyrolysis stands in the thermochemical

- Pyrolysis has three products: Bio char, Bio gas, and Bio oil. And pyrolysis needs a drying so products can be made

- Pyrolysis involves multiple complex chemical reaction and highly dependent on the pyrolysis operating parameters

- Pyrolysis steps, the biomass will be dried and will decomposed to be a gas

- Parameters of pyrolysis: technology, type of feedstock, feedstock size, residence time, and heating rate

7th March Class

Today's class was lectured by Prof Adi. And he explains about desalination, the importance of graphene in mineral water, and Biochar.

--> Desalination is the process of removing salt and other minerals from seawater or other sources of saline water to make it safe for human consumption or other purposes. It was our main topic of discussion because mineral water or clean water is reducing. So desalination is needed specifically in Indonesia where it is an archipelago country that has a lot of sea that can be used for desalination. And the main problem of desalination is cleaning the sea water because of the waste that people throw in the sea.

--> Graphene is a substance that is potentially can be used in desalination for filtering the sea water. In desalination, the process involves removing salt and other minerals from seawater or brackish water to produce freshwater. Graphene can be used as a membrane material for reverse osmosis, a common desalination technique that involves applying pressure to push water through a membrane to remove impurities.

--> Biomass is the organic matter used in pyrolysis, such as wood, agricultural waste, or other plant material, in the absence of oxygen to produce biochar, bio-oil, and syngas. During the pyrolysis process, the biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen, causing it to decompose and release gases and liquids. The gases and liquids can then be captured and used as sources of energy, while the remaining solid material is biochar. The type of biomass used in pyrolysis can influence the properties of the resulting biochar, as different types of biomass have different chemical compositions and physical characteristics.

--> Biochar is important product of biomass pyrolysis, as it has many potential uses, including as a soil amendment to improve soil fertility, as a carbon sequestration tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and as a source of renewable energy. Additionally, the pyrolysis conditions, such as the temperature, residence time, and heating rate, can also affect the properties of the biochar. These factors can influence the degree of carbonization, the ash content, and the surface area of the biochar.

Workshop Visit

Workshop Visit.jpeg

10th March 2023, Mr DAI asked us to visit his workshop/home that is located in Kukusan. I didn't get so much info on the machine because I was late but, after seeing the machine that I can conclude that the machine itself is a pyrolysis machine that used Azolla and Kohe (kotoran hewan) as the products. It is said that the machine can be pulled by the goats of Mr DAI that Mr DAI hoped to be a power plant vehicle. Later on, we go on a tour of Mr DAI's house. It was very big and I think Mr DAI has the idea of green building.

Project Update

My update on the project is that the aluminum plate has arrived to my house, and that I haven't done the OpenModelica because my OM is error.

ErrorOM.jpg Viewdepan.jpg Paket Plat.jpg

Hydrogen Production Report

This is the link for my project report.