Shafira Herdiyan Maritza Salsabila

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Nama  : Shafira Herdiyan Maritza Salsabila

NPM  : 2006574080

Jurusan : Teknik Mesin Reguler


Tugas Designing Hydrogen Storage

Hydrogen storage optimization involves determining the most efficient and effective methods for storing hydrogen gas. There are various factors to consider, such as storage capacity, energy density, safety, cost, and practicality. The optimization process typically involves evaluating different storage technologies and their performance characteristics.

To calculate hydrogen storage optimization, you would need to consider the specific requirements and constraints of the application or system where hydrogen is being stored. This could include factors like available space, desired storage duration, required release rates, and any specific safety considerations.

Several storage technologies are commonly used for hydrogen, including compressed gas storage, liquid hydrogen storage, metal hydride storage, and carbon-based materials such as activated carbon or carbon nanotubes. Each technology has its own advantages and limitations in terms of storage capacity, energy density, release rates, and safety.

The calculation process involves assessing the performance parameters of each storage technology and comparing them based on the application requirements. This can include evaluating factors such as the gravimetric and volumetric storage densities, the efficiency of hydrogen uptake and release, the cycling stability, and the overall cost.

Designing hydrogen storage systems requires careful consideration of various aspects to ensure safety, efficiency, and practicality. Here are some key aspects to consider:

1. Storage Method: There are several methods to store hydrogen, including compressed gas, liquefied hydrogen, metal hydrides, chemical storage, and solid-state storage. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages in terms of storage capacity, energy density, safety, and cost. The chosen storage method will depend on the specific application and requirements.

2. Safety: Safety is paramount when designing hydrogen storage systems. Hydrogen is highly flammable and has a wide flammability range, requiring stringent safety measures. The storage system should be designed to prevent leaks, minimize the risk of ignition, and handle any potential releases safely. Safety features such as pressure relief devices, venting systems, and leak detection mechanisms should be incorporated.

3. Storage Capacity and Energy Density: Hydrogen storage systems need to provide sufficient storage capacity and energy density to meet the intended application's requirements. High storage capacity allows for longer operation times, while high energy density enables compact and lightweight storage systems. Balancing these factors with safety considerations is crucial.

4. Efficiency: Efficient storage systems minimize energy losses during storage and retrieval. Consider factors such as heat management, thermal insulation, and energy losses associated with the chosen storage method. Minimizing energy losses ensures that stored hydrogen can be effectively utilized when needed.

5. Scalability: The design should consider scalability to accommodate different storage capacities and application requirements. This is particularly important for applications such as energy storage systems, where the demand may vary over time.

6. Infrastructure and Compatibility: Designing hydrogen storage systems also involves considering the infrastructure and compatibility with existing or planned infrastructure. For example, if the system is intended for transportation, it should be compatible with refueling infrastructure and vehicles. Compatibility with existing hydrogen production and distribution methods is also important.

7. Material Selection: Selecting appropriate materials for the storage system is crucial. The materials should have high strength, durability, and resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. Compatibility with hydrogen gas is essential to prevent material degradation or contamination.

8. Environmental Impact: Consider the environmental impact of the storage system throughout its lifecycle. Assess factors such as energy requirements for manufacturing, recyclability or reusability of materials, and any potential emissions or waste associated with the system.

9. Cost: The cost of designing and implementing the storage system should be considered. Evaluate the costs associated with materials, manufacturing processes, maintenance, and any necessary safety measures. Cost-effectiveness is important for the widespread adoption of hydrogen storage systems.

10. Regulations and Standards: Keep in mind the relevant regulations and standards for hydrogen storage systems. Compliance with safety standards and industry regulations is essential to ensure legal and safe operation.

11. Cost: Evaluate the cost implications of different storage options, including initial investment, maintenance, and operational expenses. Consider the total cost of ownership over the system's lifespan.

Remember that designing hydrogen storage systems can be complex and often requires expertise in various engineering disciplines. Engaging professionals with experience in hydrogen technologies is highly recommended to ensure optimal design and safe operation.

Final Project Designing Hydrogen Storage

Persyaratan: Mendesain penyimpanan hidrogen pada tekanan 8 bar dengan kapasitas 1 liter dan anggaran sebesar Rp 500.000.

Variabel desain: Geometri, pemilihan material dan kekuatan.

Harga: Di bawah Rp 500.000.

Tujuan: Luas permukaan terkecil, material paling tipis, dan dapat menahan tekanan 8 bar.


Untuk menemukan geometri optimal pada desain Hydrogen Tank digunakan iterasi dengan bantuan software python sehingga bisa didapatkan ukuran radius dan tinggi tanki optimal dengan luas daerah yang minimum untuk volume 1 liter

import math
from scipy.optimize import minimize

def Luas_Permukaan(radius_height):
    r, h = radius_height
    return 2 * math.pi * r * (r + h)

target_volume = 1000  # Volume dalam cm^3 (1 liter = 1000 cm^3)
x0 = [1, 1]  # Tebakan awal (radius, height)
bounds = [(0, None), (0, None)]  # Batas untuk radius dan height

# Optimasi menggunakan metode minimize dari scipy
result = minimize(Luas_Permukaan, x0, method='SLSQP', bounds=bounds,
                  constraints={'type': 'eq', 'fun': lambda x: math.pi * (x[0]**2) * x[1] - target_volume})

# Cetak hasil optimasi
print("Radius:", result.x[0])
print("Tinggi:", result.x[1])
print("Luas Permukaan:",
Radius: 5.41926305506462
Tinggi: 10.838511985088449
Luas Permukaan: 553.5810444905989

Maka radius dan tinggi yang akan digunakan pada perancangan tanki hidrogen kali ini adalah Radius: 5.41926305506462 Tinggi: 10.838511985088449


Pada studi kasus kali ini saya memilih Alumunium Alloy 6061 untuk menjadi material dasar perancanganan hydrogen tank dengan alasan:

Kekuatan dan Kekakuan: Alumunium Alloy 6061 memiliki rasio kekuatan-berat yang sangat baik, sehingga menjadi pilihan yang diinginkan untuk tangki hidrogen bertekanan.

Ketahanan Korosi: Alumunium Alloy 6061 memiliki lapisan oksida alami yang memberikan ketahanan korosi inheren. Lapisan oksida ini dapat ditingkatkan melalui perlakuan permukaan atau lapisan pelindung untuk meningkatkan ketahanan material terhadap kerapuhan hidrogen.

Ringan: Alumunnium Alloy 6061 adalah material yang ringan, yang berkontribusi pada pengurangan berat keseluruhan tangki hidrogen.

Efektivitas Biaya: Alumunium Alloy 6061 relatif ekonomis dibandingkan dengan material kinerja tinggi lainnya, seperti komposit serat karbon atau paduan titanium.


Untuk menghitung kekuatan material pada desain hydrogen tank kembali digunakan iterasi dengan bantuan software python

r = 5.419e-2
p = 800000
t = 1e-3

while t < 5e-3:
  hoop = (r * p)/(t)
  print('for thickness', t, 'hoop stress =', hoop, "Pa")
  t += 0.1e-3
  if hoop > 264e9:

Hasil iterasi didapatkan

for thickness 0.001 hoop stress = 43352000.0 Pa
for thickness 0.0011 hoop stress = 39410909.090909086 Pa
for thickness 0.0012000000000000001 hoop stress = 36126666.666666664 Pa
for thickness 0.0013000000000000002 hoop stress = 33347692.307692304 Pa
for thickness 0.0014000000000000002 hoop stress = 30965714.28571428 Pa
for thickness 0.0015000000000000002 hoop stress = 28901333.33333333 Pa
for thickness 0.0016000000000000003 hoop stress = 27094999.999999996 Pa
for thickness 0.0017000000000000003 hoop stress = 25501176.47058823 Pa
for thickness 0.0018000000000000004 hoop stress = 24084444.44444444 Pa
for thickness 0.0019000000000000004 hoop stress = 22816842.10526315 Pa
for thickness 0.0020000000000000005 hoop stress = 21675999.999999996 Pa
for thickness 0.0021000000000000003 hoop stress = 20643809.523809522 Pa
for thickness 0.0022 hoop stress = 19705454.545454543 Pa
for thickness 0.0023 hoop stress = 18848695.652173914 Pa
for thickness 0.0024 hoop stress = 18063333.333333336 Pa
for thickness 0.0024999999999999996 hoop stress = 17340800.000000004 Pa
for thickness 0.0025999999999999994 hoop stress = 16673846.153846158 Pa
for thickness 0.0026999999999999993 hoop stress = 16056296.2962963 Pa
for thickness 0.002799999999999999 hoop stress = 15482857.142857147 Pa
for thickness 0.002899999999999999 hoop stress = 14948965.517241385 Pa
for thickness 0.0029999999999999988 hoop stress = 14450666.666666673 Pa
for thickness 0.0030999999999999986 hoop stress = 13984516.129032264 Pa
for thickness 0.0031999999999999984 hoop stress = 13547500.000000007 Pa
for thickness 0.0032999999999999982 hoop stress = 13136969.696969705 Pa
for thickness 0.003399999999999998 hoop stress = 12750588.235294124 Pa
for thickness 0.003499999999999998 hoop stress = 12386285.714285722 Pa
for thickness 0.0035999999999999977 hoop stress = 12042222.22222223 Pa
for thickness 0.0036999999999999976 hoop stress = 11716756.756756764 Pa
for thickness 0.0037999999999999974 hoop stress = 11408421.052631587 Pa
for thickness 0.0038999999999999972 hoop stress = 11115897.435897443 Pa
for thickness 0.0039999999999999975 hoop stress = 10838000.000000007 Pa
for thickness 0.004099999999999998 hoop stress = 10573658.536585372 Pa
for thickness 0.004199999999999998 hoop stress = 10321904.761904767 Pa
for thickness 0.004299999999999998 hoop stress = 10081860.465116283 Pa
for thickness 0.0043999999999999985 hoop stress = 9852727.272727275 Pa
for thickness 0.004499999999999999 hoop stress = 9633777.77777778 Pa
for thickness 0.004599999999999999 hoop stress = 9424347.826086959 Pa
for thickness 0.004699999999999999 hoop stress = 9223829.787234044 Pa
for thickness 0.0048 hoop stress = 9031666.666666668 Pa
for thickness 0.0049 hoop stress = 8847346.93877551 Pa

Efektivitas Biaya


Berdasarkan tabel harga plat aluminium dan setelah hasil perhitungan iterasi maka ketebalan yang efektif untuk mendapatkan efektivitas biaya sebesar 1 mm dengan harga yang terjangkau dan hasil kekuatan yang cukup besar

Tugas Video Presentasi

"my concious efforts in numerical method learning and its application in hydrogen storage design optimization"