Muhammad Ariq Kautsar

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Greetings!! My name is Muhammad Ariq Kautsar, but everyone calls me Ariq. Currently I am a student at the University of Indonesia, majoring in Mechanical Engineering. Ariq Foto.jpg

Name: Muhammad Ariq Kautsar

Date of Birth: December 28th, 2000

NPM: 1906422956

Major: Mechanical Engineering

For the purpose of Energy Conversion 2 (ECS 2) subject I took at the end of my bachelor's degree, this page will be used as an activity log as well as the CCITonline website. Regards to Pak DAI for establishing these websites to support students' study.

Thank you and see you on the next posts!

Personal Project


A personal project was handed by Mr. DAI and Prof. Adi in order for us to be more conscious about the Energy Conversion System 2 subject. They gave three topic options which are about Pyrolysis, Electric Vehicle, and IC engine. This project will later use Open Modelica Software

Chosen Topic

After some research on the internet, I came up with the topic of IC Engine or Internal Combustion Engine. As it is one of the most-discussed topic on modeling software


Spark-ignited engines are widely used in transportation and power generation applications due to their high efficiency and low emissions. In order to improve their performance, it is necessary to accurately model and simulate the behavior of the engine under different operating conditions. This can be achieved using Modelica, a modeling language that allows for the creation of complex dynamic systems.

The Modelica simulation of spark ignited engines involves the creation of a comprehensive model that includes the engine geometry, fuel injection system, combustion process, and heat transfer mechanism. The model is based on first principles and empirical data and includes various sub-models that capture the physics of the engine operation. These sub-models are integrated together to form a complete system that can be used to simulate the engine behavior under different conditions.

The simulation results can be used to analyze the engine performance, optimize the engine design, and develop control strategies for the engine operation. The simulation can also be used to study the impact of different fuel properties on the engine performance and emissions.

Several studies have been conducted on the Modelica simulation of spark ignited engines. For example, in a study by Jafarmadar et al. (2016), a comprehensive Modelica model was developed for a spark-ignited engine and validated against experimental data. The simulation was used to investigate the effects of different engine parameters such as air-fuel ratio, ignition timing, and fuel injection rate on the engine performance and emissions.

Project Update

As for the personal project, I decided to join Rasen's project regarding hydrogen combustion engine. With instead of regular fossil fuel, the project is using water (which it's hydrogen element will later be used). What makes my project differ is the dimension of the metal plate which is 20x20 cm with 2mm thickness. The plate itself is already bought with approximately 10 sheets of Al1100.

Plat1kosar.jpg Plat2kosar.jpg

Project Report

The report of my project can be seen by clicking the link below

Will We Ever Run Out of Oil??

Estimating the remaining oil reserves of the planet is notoriously difficult, and frankly, subject to constant change. The reasons for this vary but are primarily dictated by our technological ability to exploit oil reserves in the first place and also the difficulty of estimating future demand.

That being said, at current consumption, we have by some accounts an estimated 47 years of oil left to be extracted. That equates to somewhere in the region of 1.65 trillion barrels of proven oil reserves. Other sources up this estimate a bit, but most agree we have around 50 years left, give or take. For reference, a barrel of crude oil is about 42 gallons or about 159 liters.

With regards to other fossil fuels, we have an estimated 53 years of natural gas, and 114 years of coal left to rip out of the ground according to

"Proven" oil reserves are those oil reserves that any given region can theoretically extract based on the infrastructure they have in place or plan to have in the near future. This is obviously dependent, as we previously stated, on the oil extraction methods and technology. However, it is important to note that any oil left in already tapped oil reserves is not necessarily useable. Often termed "heavy" or "sour" oil, this stuff is pretty poor quality. It is also not always in a liquid form and can contain large amounts of contaminants like sulfur.

Sulfur is a big deal as it is very corrosive to steel, which is obviously not good news for equipment like that used in refineries. Sulfur-rich oil is very complex and energy-intensive to process which obviously increases the cost of bringing it to market. One such material is bitumen. This is a very viscous (sticky) low-grade form of crude oil that can be distilled to make petroleum. It can also be used "as is" as a binder for many other things like asphalt, roofing products, damp-proofing, etc.

It is so sticky that the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) often compares it to “cold molasses”. Producers like the CAPP have greatly improved their technological capacity over the past few decades which, by extension, has necessarily increased Canada's proven reserves as a consequence. Other technological developments like hydraulic fracturing (fracking), have also contributed to increasing the world’s proven reserves despite an increase in global consumption (and attracting controversy).

Another more recent innovation is our ability to process and extract shale oil, more specifically a material called kerogen (a waxy mixture of hydrocarbon compounds). This tends to be found within shale deposits and needs to be heated to around 932 degrees Fahrenheit (500 degrees centigrade) to extract and process. This process converts the solid kerogen into something similar to oil. What's more, there is an absolute glut of this stuff in places like the USA. According to some estimates, there are "trillions" of barrels of shale oil in the U.S. alone. However, the actual energy return on energy invested (EROEI) to extract and refine shale oil is so poor that there has been no serious commercial exploitation of oil shale to date.


February 21st 2023

Command : What is the correlation of oil and gas factory, sugar cane factory, and automotive factory?

Respond : Oil and gas factories: Oil and gas factories produce fossil fuels, which are commonly used as a source of energy for various industries, including automotive factories. Oil is also a feedstock for the production of petrochemicals, which are used in the manufacturing of plastics and other materials used in the automotive industry. Moreover, some sugar cane factories also use bagasse, a byproduct of sugarcane processing, as a fuel for their operations.

Sugar cane factories: Sugar cane factories process sugarcane into sugar, which is used as a sweetener in the food and beverage industry. Sugar cane factories also produce bagasse, a byproduct that can be used as a source of energy for various industries, including the production of biofuels. In some cases, sugar cane factories may also produce ethanol, which is a biofuel that can be used as a substitute for gasoline in automotive engines.

Automotive factories: Automotive factories produce cars, trucks, and other vehicles that are powered by various fuels, including gasoline, diesel, electric, and hybrid powertrains. The production of automotive vehicles requires a significant amount of energy, raw materials, and other inputs, which can be derived from oil, gas, sugar cane, and other sources.

Overall, the correlations between oil and gas factories, sugar cane factories, and automotive factories can vary depending on the specific products, technologies, and markets involved. However, it is clear that these industries are interconnected and can influence each other in various ways.

Class Visit: Mr. DAI's Workshop

Friday, March 10th 2023

As a replacement for the class, Mr. DAI invited us to his workshop. According to him, this encourages us to get more grasp and understanding of ECS rather than only discussing and learning from class. Alhamdulillah, I got the idea of a mobile refinery station that can turn biomass into fuel, designed by MR. DAI himself.

ECS Selfie.jpg

A mobile refinery station is a self-contained unit that can be transported to a remote location for the purpose of refining crude oil into usable products such as gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The unit typically consists of a set of processing equipment that is mounted on a truck or trailer, including a distillation tower, reactors, separators, and pumps. Mobile refinery stations are often used in remote areas where there is no access to pipelines or fixed refineries. They can also be used in emergency situations, such as natural disasters or military operations, to provide fuel for critical infrastructure or military vehicles.

The advantages of mobile refinery stations include their portability, flexibility, and ability to produce fuel on demand. They can be quickly deployed to different locations as needed and can be customized to meet the specific needs of the local market. In addition, they can reduce the transportation costs associated with moving crude oil to a fixed refinery and then transporting the refined products back to the market.

Class Log

28 February 2023

Today Prof. Adi explain briefly about pyrolysis, which is a process that turns one phase of an object into another. And to make sure we have a good understanding, he demonstrates a pyrolysis example. He also talks about combustion which works by oxidation (uses oxygen), as well as it had molecules that vibrate which makes the temperature rise.

Mr. DAI shares an idea from Tesla that electricity distribution can be wireless, he also added that if we want to understand physics, basically we need to know about energy and frequency

Prof ADI: Some people turn waste into a much more beneficial one. for example, plastic waste into fuel was done by his doctorate student. This works by breaking the carbon chain molecule of an object (in this case plastic). Later on, he explains that the objective of education is to acknowledge the benefits of everything around us. This continues a discussion of waste separation, the big question is "how come there is so much waste all around us?". The discussion then leads to how we can possibly to manage waste much more easier.

7 March 2023


Desalination is the process of removing salt and other minerals from seawater, brackish water, or other sources of water that are not suitable for human consumption or industrial use. This process is used to produce freshwater for drinking, agriculture, and industrial purposes.There are several desalination technologies available, including reverse osmosis, distillation, and electrodialysis. Reverse osmosis is the most widely used technology, which involves passing water through a semipermeable membrane that separates the salt and other impurities from the water.

Desalination has several advantages, including providing a reliable source of freshwater in areas with limited freshwater resources, reducing the dependence on freshwater sources that are susceptible to droughts and other environmental factors, and helping to alleviate water scarcity in areas with growing populations.However, desalination also has some drawbacks, including high energy consumption, high costs, and potential environmental impacts, such as the discharge of concentrated brine into the ocean. Despite these challenges, desalination is becoming increasingly important as a means of providing freshwater in many parts of the world.


Although it is very beneficial for human life, both for consumption or to stimulate economic activity, it turns out that desalination also has a negative impact on the environment. Reported by Reuters, there are 16,000 desalination projects in various parts of the world that have produced chemicals that are harmful to the environment. Desalination waste containing chemicals is certainly dangerous for habitats in the sea, including various fish and other marine biota.

Reported by the United Nations University, 16,000 desalination projects also produce 142 million cubic meters of salt water. This amount turned out to be 50 % more than previously thought. This means that the potential hazard from the presence of chemical waste from the desalination process is also getting bigger.

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Graphene is a unique material that consists of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice structure. Due to its unique properties, such as high surface area, high mechanical strength, and excellent conductivity, graphene has gained attention as a promising material for water filtration applications.One of the potential applications of graphene in water filtration is in the development of graphene-based membranes. Graphene membranes have shown excellent performance in filtering out small particles and impurities from water, including bacteria, viruses, and heavy metals. The high surface area of graphene allows for a high flux rate, while its excellent mechanical strength ensures that the membrane remains intact during filtration.

Another potential application of graphene in water filtration is in the development of graphene oxide (GO) membranes. GO is a derivative of graphene that has functional groups attached to its surface, which makes it hydrophilic and allows it to selectively remove impurities from water. GO membranes have been shown to be effective in removing organic pollutants and heavy metals from contaminated water.Graphene-based materials have the potential to improve the efficiency and performance of water filtration systems, leading to cleaner and safer drinking water. However, more research is needed to optimize the production of graphene-based membranes and to address any potential environmental and health concerns associated with their use.