M. Reyhan Fachriansyah Hermawan

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My conciousness is my top priority


Name: M. Reyhan Fachriansyah Hermawan

NPM: 2106657172

Major: Mechanical Engineering KKI

DoB: 19 April 2003

E-mail: reyhanfachriansyah@gmail.com

Hello All!

My name is Reyhan Fachriansyah, you can call me fahri. This is my page that contains the progress of my ongoing assigned project for Numerical Method course in my fourth semester. My future goal is to establish several high-tech manufacturing company revolving around robotics, sensors, and renewable energy. I hope by undertaking this course, i will bring my self closer to my goal by expanding my knowledge and conciousness

Class Abstract

23 May 2023

This day is the first day of our course, lectured by Pak Dr. Ahmad Indra Siswantara or commonly called as "pak Dai". In this day we were given knowledge about how conciousness highly important to our daily life espescially affecting Numerical Methodology. Pak Dai also lectured us about Cara Cerdas Ingat Tuhan.

30 May 2023

On today's session, Mr. Dai assigned us to discuss together about our main project of Numerical Method with our friend Patrick Samperuru as the discussion moderator as the head of class's replacement. Each of the attendants were given several chance of public-explanation in front of the class in order to complete our project, which entails designing a functional hydrogen tank that is optimized within the constraints of pressure constraints at 8 bar, 1 liter capacity, and a maximum budget of IDR 500,000, all participants are asked to contribute their thoughts in the form of opinions and personal viewpoints. There were two session on todays dicussion, which is material discussion and optimization discussion.

The discussion was then continued by one of our friend Patrick Samperuru in the first discussion for applicable materials, Patrick then listed a number of possible materials that can be used as the hydrogen tank based on the different hydrogen tank types such as type I, (all metal), type II, (metal with a carbon fiber wrap), type III, (composite with metal lining), and type IV, (composite with non-metal lining). But for this project, he reckon that the most probable type of hydrogen tank would be the type I or II since the production would be easier, and also theoritically be able to withold 8 bar of pressure, thus the end production price will be more affordable for our capped cost of IDR 500,000. In the next turn, Reyhan Fachri stated the details of several possible material that can be applied as hydrogen tank, this inlcudes AISI 316, AISI 304, AISI 316L, AISI 304L. Cu, or Al alloys are commonly used as the main material for hydrogen tanks since it is largely immune to hydrogen effects at ambient temperatures.

For the second session of the discussion which is optimization discussion several attendee points out the three key areas required for our optimization. The area consists of design variable, goal function, and constraint, all of which may vary for each member of the class. Reyhan Fachri began by describing his objective function, which is weight consideration. In sectors like aircraft, home appliences or the automobile, where weight is particularly important, hydrogen tanks are frequently employed. Therefore, while retaining structural integrity, the tank design should strive to reduce weight. Ikhsan Rahadian then points out the importance of structural integrity to bear internal pressure, external loads, and other environmental conditions, the tank has to be structurally sound. To assure the tank's stability and strength, structural study, including finite element analysis. After that, M. Annawfal Rizky mentioned that he wanted the limitation to be the compatibility with hydrogen gas: 'The tank material should be compatible with hydrogen gas to prevent any chemical reactions, embrittlement, or degradation that could affect the tank's performance or safety', he said.

Design and Optimization Project - Hydrogen Tank

Project Overview

This design and optimization project is assigned by our lecturer Pak Dr. Ahmad Indra Siswantara as an individual project/task as a learning method to use Numerical Method as a tool for real-life application problems. The project consist of designing a hydrogen tank with some constraints: consider being the gas pressurized at 8 bars, a required volume of 1 liter, and a maximum budget of 500,000 IDR to make one. Hydrogen gas has a high level of danger espescially when pressurized to a high pressure by reason of the likelihood of explosion. Thus, it is crucial for engineers to design and optimize a safe hydrogen tanks for several type of real life practices.

The example of the application of hydrogen tank used as fuel tank in a car

When building a hydrogen storage facility, the following factors should be taken into account:

  • Fatigue Resistance: Tanks must be built to sustain the necessary pressure, which is commonly expressed in bars or pounds per square inch (psi). The needed material strength, wall thickness, and structural design will be determined by the pressure rating.
  • Limitations on volume and shape: The tank's overall dimensions and shape will depend on the available space and required capacity. The tank should be made to fit the area allotted for it and to have the appropriate volume.
  • Material compatibility: It's important to use materials that are friendly to hydrogen since it might embrittle or have other negative effects on some materials. Carbon fiber composites, high-strength steel alloys, and several aluminum alloys are popular options.
  • Weight considerations: Applications where weight is important, such in the aerospace or automobile sectors that is frequently employ hydrogen tanks inside. Therefore, while retaining structural integrity, the tank design should be able to reduce it own weight.
  • Safety Features: Due to its great flammability, hydrogen demands extra safety measures. To avoid overpressurization, reduce hazards, and maintain safe operation, it is crucial to include the proper safety measures, such as pressure release devices, burst discs, and leak detection systems.
  • Operational Environtment: Which includes temperature changes, exposure to moisture or chemicals, and potential impacts or vibration. The tank should be constructed so that it can resist these circumstances without losing integrity.

Hydrogen Gas Study

The lightest gas in the universe, hydrogen is often found as the diatomic gas H2, and it is typically non-reactive. However, when it is gaseous, it easily burns. Despite having a moderate reactivity, hydrogen takes up a substantial amount of space when exposed to typical circumstances like atmospheric pressure. This volume has to be decreased in order to facilitate effective storage and transit. High-pressure storage as a gas, extremely low-temperature storage as a liquid, or solid-state storage utilizing hydrides are the most used techniques for improving hydrogen storage and transit efficiency (albeit the first two techniques are more popular). Pressurization up to 700 bars or more is required to provide the greatest hydrogen output in a specific container capacity, requiring significant energy and a durable container design. Because it is cryogenic, liquid hydrogen needs to be kept at very low temperatures in order to preserve its liquid condition and avoid considerable evaporation. The attention changes away from the hydrogen yield's efficiency in the current scenario, though, where a tiny storage volume and constrained pressure are involved, to the cost and efficiency of the container material. In Indonesia, the average interior temperature is around 30 degrees Celsius, and the hydrogen gas has a density of 0.627 kilograms per cubic meter at 8 bars of pressure. Consequently, the gas weights 0.627 grams, or less than 0.001 kg, per liter, or 0.001 cubic meters. This suggests that in order to store the gas under these circumstances, a container's material and design must be able to sustain an 8 bar wall pressure. In order to guarantee that the weight of the container as a whole is much more than the weight of the gas being held, the container's density should ideally be lower.

Material Choice

Because they can withstand the cryogenic temperatures (about -253 degrees Celsius), Type 614 austenitic stainless steels are frequently utilized for liquid hydrogen services. Austenitic stainless steels have strong ductility and energy absorption characteristics at such low temperatures, which is crucial for preserving safety. However, compared to other materials, austenitic stainless steel has a substantially lower hydrogen diffusion rate. Stainless steel outperforms other hydrogen pipeline materials in harsh situations due to its strong corrosion resistance.

Mechanical & Physical properties of Stainless steel AISI 316 at 20 °C/ 68 °F

Geometrical Constraint

"Geometrical constraint" refers to a restriction or requirement pertaining to the hydrogen tank's geometrical features. It outlines any restrictions or prerequisites that the tank's measurements, including its height and radius, must meet. The geomterical constraint is used to guarantee the tank's shape and capacity, optimizing its design for a particular use or objective. You are establishing the acceptable range of tank size by putting these restrictions in place. The optimization procedure then seeks to identify the ideal dimensions that reduce the thickness of the tank while satisfying other criteria like pressure limitations and material strength. The code below is the product of reviewing other geometrical constraint code from a variety of sources on the internet.

import numpy as np
from scipy.optimize import minimize
def objective(x):
   R, V = x
   h = 4 * np.sqrt((np.pi * R**2 * 4 - V) / np.pi)
   r = h / 4
   thickness = R - r
   return thickness
def volume_constraint(x):
   R, V = x
   h = 4 * np.sqrt((np.pi * R**2 * 4 - V) / np.pi)
   r = h / 4
   return np.pi * h * (R**2 - r**2) - V
def pressure_constraint(x):
   R, V = x
   t = R - (R / 4)
   stress = 8 * R / (2 * t)
   allowable_stress = 75 * 1000  # ksi to psi
   return allowable_stress - stress
# Define the initial guess for R and V in mm
x0 = np.array([100, 125])  # initial guess for R and V
# Define the bounds for R and V in mm
bounds = [(0, None), (100, 150)]
# Define the constraints
constraints = [
   {'type': 'eq', 'fun': volume_constraint},
   {'type': 'ineq', 'fun': pressure_constraint}
# Perform the optimization
result = minimize(objective, x0, method='SLSQP', bounds=bounds, constraints=constraints)
# Extract the optimal values
R_opt, V_opt = result.x
h_opt = 4 * np.sqrt((np.pi * R_opt**2 * 4 - V_opt) / np.pi)
r_opt = h_opt / 4
thickness_opt = R_opt - r_opt
# Print the optimal results
print('Optimal Dimensions:')
print('Outer Radius (R):', R_opt, 'cm')
print('Inner Radius (r):', r_opt, 'cm')
print('Height (h):', h_opt, 'cm')
print('Thickness:', thickness_opt, 'mm')

The code's output is displayed on the bottom left, along with the recommended shape for a cylindrical tank with a 1 liter by using AISI 614 material is:

Optimal Dimensions:
Outer Radius (R): 3.837168217663359 cm
Inner Radius (r): 3.3390053601356486 cm
Height (h): 13.356021440542595 cm
Thickness: 0.4981628575277104 mm

Volume of the tank is:

Volume = π * h * (R^2 - r^2)
Volume = π * 13.3560 * (3.837^2 - 3.339^2) cm^3
Volume ≈ 754.168 cm^3

Therefore, with the given dimensions, the volume of the cylinder is approximately 754.168 cubic millimeters (mm^3).

Surface are of the cylinder is:


End Cap Compensation

The bulges or convex shapes often observed on each end of gas tanks serve multiple purposes related to safety and structural integrity. Here are the main reasons why gas tanks have bulges on each end:

1. Reinforcement: Gas tanks' bulges at the ends serve as structural reinforcement. The tank becomes stronger to withstand internal and external stresses by adding curvature to the ends. This reinforcement contributes to the tank's increased longevity by boosting its resistance to deformation, impacts, and other forces.

2. Stress Distribution: The bulges help the tank's tension to be distributed more evenly. The tank's curved design helps spread the load when pressure or other external forces are applied, which lowers localized stress concentrations. The tank's resistance to deformation and probable failure under harsh conditions is improved by this design element.

3. Safety and Containment: The bulges really helps in preventing damage to the tank in the case of an accident or hit. They serve as a buffer, absorbing and dispersing forces before they enter the main body of the tank by spreading outward. By assisting in the prevention of tears or punctures, this design lowers the possibility of leaks and other possible risks related to gas containment.

It's important to note that the specific design and shape of gas tanks can vary depending on factors such as the type of gas being stored, the intended application, and safety regulations. The bulges on the ends of gas tanks are one of the common design features employed to ensure safe and reliable storage of gases.

The purpose of end cap compensation is to precisely calculate a cylindrical tank's useable capacity. The purpose is to offer accurate measurements or computations for storing liquids or other substances by taking into consideration the volume occupied by the end caps. End cap compensation makes ensuring that the quoted capacity accurately represents the volume that is really available for usage by taking the end caps' space into account. In many different industries, including engineering, manufacturing, and storage, accurate measurements are essential for effective operations and exact planning.

from scipy.integrate import quad
import numpy as np
# Function to calculate the surface area of a circle
def circle_area(radius):
   return np.pi * radius**2
# Given values
R = 3.837  # Outer Radius in mm
r = 3.339  # Inner Radius in mm
h = 13.3565  # Height in mm
thickness = 0.5  # Thickness in mm ROUNDED
# Calculate the surface area of the outer circle
A_outer, _ = quad(circle_area, 0, R)
# Calculate the surface area of the inner circle
A_inner, _ = quad(circle_area, 0, r)
# Calculate the surface area of the end cap
A_end_cap = A_outer - A_inner
# Calculate the end cap compensation
end_cap_compensation = A_end_cap * thickness
print("End Cap Compensation: {:.4f} mm^2".format(end_cap_compensation))

The final code of the end cap compensatiion result is:

End Cap Compensation: 10.0867 cm^2

Total surface area of the tank is:

414.498 + 10.0867 = 424,5847 cm^2

Material Cost

The cost of the material needed to fabricate a hydrogen tank with a surface area of 424,5847 cm^2 of stainless steel grade 316 with 5mm of thickness is listed below:

Cost of a stainless steel grade 316 plate listed on sale by Pt. Citra 
Anggun Lestari for 5mm of thickness:
121,9cm × 243,8cm = 29719cm^2 = Rp. 8.099.973
We only need 424,5847 cm^2 for the tank, hence the price will be around 
Rp. 116.000, that is within the budget restriction is priced 
according to PT. Citra Anggun Lestari.

It is important to mention that this is not the final price to fabricate the hydrogen tank, there is much else to consider such as labor, machining cost, safety parts, and others.

The price of Stainless Steel grade 316 plate

3D CAD Modelling, Conclusion & Evaluation

The 2D sketching process with the addition of a filling port
The second 2D sketching process with the addition of a filling port
The final revolved design with the addition of a filling port

In conclusion, the use of numerical methods made it possible to calculate the hydrogen tank's dimensions in accordance with the design's strength and cost. In this case, the use of Python coding served as a facilitator for computing a variety of quantities that are based on a variety of other quantities as well as characteristics. The coding can be beneficial to our need in calculating the optimization for several condition such as Hydrogen Tank. Making the computations more precise and realistically will, in my opinion, be the greatest strategy for future advancements. It will also be a fantastic addition if we incorporate simulation, such as from ansys, solidworks, or other CAD program. There are certain presumptions that the optimization may not make the best use of, and there are some idealizations that may not be appropriate in this particular situation.

My Conciouss Effort

By the end of the project i can get some self-improvement on my self by appling my concioussness effort during all of the part of the project. I think what it means by conciusness effort is that to be aware of my own capabilities, using several tool from the open source like internet would help me improve my capabilities. But there is always some methods that is not gain-able since there is limitationto our understanding of the universe. By this project, it is important consciousness is for our daily life challenges. And by all means, i am very much grateful for all the things that god has give me.

This is the video that contain my presentation:


ECS Class Topics Daily Summary

سْمِ ٱللّٰهِ ٱلرَّحْمٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ‎

First Meeting

In our first meeting, we mainly talk about the purpose of calculus and also energy. Pak DAI mentioned about Einstein's quotes about education : What is left after you’re forgotten all you have learned. We also learned about what is calculus. One branch of mathematics that is useful for studying change is calculus. It functions similarly to a tool that helps us calculate the rate of change or the sum of items. First thing is Differentiation, This allows us to determine the rate at which something is changing at any given time. It's analogous to quickly checking the speed of an automobile. The second main thing is Integration, This aids in calculating the sum of numerous minor adjustments. It's similar to calculating a car's total available distance when you know its speed at various points in time. And for the other thing is we talked about energy. Energy is mainly talked about efficiency. Each and every energy that is beneficial to us needs to be counted in order to determine its efficiency. Since humans require energy to survive in this planet. One of the many laws of energy is that energy is convertible into other forms of energy. Logic is based on three guiding principles: the law of identity, the law of no contradiction, and the law of the middle excluded.

Second Meeting

On the date of November 1, 2023, our class convened at the DTM Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Laboratory, led by Bang Edo. During this session, we delved into the world of CFD, gaining valuable insights into the intricacies of simulating fluid flows. As we gathered in the laboratory, Mr. Edo guided us through the various aspects of CFD, imparting his knowledge This immersive experience allowed us to explore and understand the dynamics of fluid behavior in a hands-on manner so it enhanced our understanding of the subject and preparing us for real-world applications of CFD in various fields. It was an enriching and intellectually stimulating class that left us with a deeper appreciation for the significance of CFD simulations in modern engineering. we talked about how engineers in the past simulate a products in terms of its efficiency and air flow. We also learned how to implement the design of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) and visualize it in Paraview App.

Third Meeting

On the day of November 8, 2023, we reconvened at the DTM (Department and Mechanical Engineering) laboratory, where we met our lecturer again, Mr. DAI, and our mentor Mr. Edo. This particular session was marked by a significant focus on revisiting and reflecting upon our prior progress and calculating the torque generated in our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) material, particularly in relation to the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) simulation using Paraview and CFDSOF.

CFDSOF Simulation, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT)

  • Start time = 0
  • End time = 0.1
  • Inlet velocity = (6 0 0), 6 at the x axis and 0 at the y axis

Screenshot 2023-11-08 093104.png

Screenshot 2023-11-08 092348.png

Results in PARAVIEW

Pressure results

  • Pressure Magnitude
Figure 3.1 Pressure magnitude.png

The result of the pressure magnitude is presented in Figure 3.1

Figure 3.1 shows a distinct pattern where the colors denote different pressure zones: red denotes higher pressure regions and blue suggests lower pressure regions. At the turbine area, the near side of the bottom airfoil (with respect to the rotational axis) exhibits a low pressure region, while the far side (with respect to the rotational axis) exhibits a higher pressure region.

  • Pressure at t = 0.02s

Figure 3.2 Pressure at t = 0.02s.png <----(Figure 3.2) The result of the Pressure at t = 0.02s is presented in Figure 3.2

  • Pressure at t = 0.05s

Figure 3.3 Pressure at t = 0.05s.png <----(Figure 3.3)The result of the Pressure at t = 0.05s is presented in Figure 3.3

  • Pressure at t = 0.07s

Figure 3.4 Pressure at t = 0.07s.png <----(Figure 3.4)The result of the Pressure at t = 0.07s is presented in Figure 3.4

  • Pressure at t = 0.1s

Figure 3.5 Pressure at t = 0.1s.png <----(Figure 3.5)The result of the Pressure at t = 0.1s is presented in Figure 3.5

Torque & Force Result

The torque and force result is presented in Figure 3.6

Velocity & Pressure Mesh Result

Static 2-Dimensional Simulation of a Single Blade


  • Simulation mode: Steady-state, laminar, and incompressible
  • Initial condition = 0 m/s velocity
  • Geometry used in the simulation: 1 m X 3 m X 1 m
  • Base mesh: 10 m X 10 m X 0.1 m
  • Velocity reference value: 0.01 m/s
  • Simulation mode: Steady-state, laminar, and incompressible
  • Initial condition = 0 m/s velocity

Figure 3.7 Pressure.png Figure 3.8 Velocity.png

Centrifugal Fan

You can see the result of my work about Centrifugal fans below


Single Blade Simulation


  • Box geometry properties: 0.15 m X 0.4 m X 1 m
  • Base mesh: 10 m X 10 m X 0.1 m at 200 X 200 X 1 division
  • Velocity reference value: 0.01 m/s
  • Simulation mode: Steady-state, laminar, incompressible
  • Initial condition = Fixed value velocity with 0 m/s speed

Boxdimension.png Fotobasemesh.png




Pressure 111.png


Velocity 111.png

Because of the significant scale difference between the control volume and the blade's size, an obvious occurrence occurs: beyond a certain radius, a distinct area of unhindered airflow becomes visible around the blade. Due to this difference in size ratios, a discernible amount of the area around the blade is located in an area where the flow is essentially unaffected by the blade's presence. This region, which has very little interference or blockage from the blade, is easily distinguished by the large scale difference between the control volume and the blade.

Analysys Velocity111.png

Several interesting points can be drawn from the figure above:

  • This Area is called as 'Wake Region'. The blade's coverage area moves at a comparatively slow speed and has viewable turbulence. (Area 1)
  • This Area is called as 'Stagnation Region'. Just in front of the blade, a tiny region has no velocity. (Area 2)
  • This Area is called as 'Free-Stream Region'. There is some uniformity on the left input side. (Area 3)
  • This Area is called as 'Accelerated Velocity Region'. Compared to the other places, the area above and below has the fastest velocity. (Area 4)

The increase in velocity observed in area 4 can be explained as a fundamental principle of fluid dynamics aimed at maintaining a constant flow rate within the given control volume. This principle is commonly represented by the equation Q1 = Q2, which also translates to V1 * A1 = V2 * A2. Here, Q represents the flow rate, V stands for velocity, and A denotes the area through which the fluid is flowing.

When a blade or obstruction is introduced within the flow path, it reduces the area available within the control volume. As a consequence, to uphold a consistent flow rate through the system, the velocity of the air must adapt and increase in the narrower area (Area 4 in this scenario). This adjustment in velocity is necessary to compensate for the decreased area and ensure that the same volume of air passes through the smaller area as it does through the larger area.

Therefore, the observed acceleration in the air velocity in Area 4 is a direct result of the fluid's effort to maintain a constant flow rate despite encountering a reduced space due to the obstruction. This alteration in velocity generates the distinctive shape and pattern evident in the figure, illustrating the dynamic behavior of fluids within the control volume.

Force Comparison Result of Manual Calculation and Simulation


  • Area of (0.4 * 0.15)m
  • Air density of 1.225 kg/m^3
  • Steady-state, laminar, incompressible



The Force Result from the simulation is -2.13412e-6 in the X-AXIS

Manual Calculation


(Note: The Answer is in Newton [N])

Force: 1,47 x 10^-6 N


  • Fx(sim) = -2.13412e-6 N
  • Fx(Calc) = 1.47e-6 N

The outcomes derived from both the manual calculation and the simulation exhibited considerable disparities, raising the possibility of potential human error or inaccuracies during the data input phase within the simulation software. These errors were evident, particularly in the contrasting signs of the calculated forces. The negative signs observed in the simulation's results, in contrast to the positive values obtained in the manual calculation, may be attributed to differing underlying assumptions during the force computation process.

In the manual calculation, the assessment of the force focused on the impact of the wind on the blade. This viewpoint examined how the wind's force acted upon the blade's surface. Conversely, in the simulation, the analysis approached the force calculation by considering the perspective of the blade's influence on the wind. Here, the emphasis was on evaluating the force exerted by the blade onto the airflow passing through it.

The differences in the signs and magnitude of the calculated forces between the manual calculation and the simulation were probably caused by these different points of view and underlying assumptions. Moreover, differences in the final results could have been caused by mistakes made when converting theoretical presumptions into actual data inputs for the simulation program. Therefore, in order to reconcile and gain a deeper understanding of the observed disparities in the computed forces, a careful examination of both approaches and a comprehensive assessment of the input parameters are required.

My Conscious Effort

By the time this project ends, I want to have improved myself by always putting in concentrated work during all of its stages. "Conscious effort" means knowing what I can do and using online resources to enhance my knowledge base, such as open-source tools. However, because of the gaps in our knowledge of the cosmos, some techniques might stay unattainable. This project emphasizes how important consciousness is to overcoming obstacles in daily life. I have a great deal of gratitude for all the favors I have received from a higher power.

Many areas, especially engineering and technology, require an understanding of fluid dynamics modeling and design. The behavior of fluids, such water or air, in various settings can be analyzed and predicted, which has an impact on the effectiveness and design of systems.

Knowing fluid dynamics is essential when discussing fans and blades. Fans are air or gas moving devices, and the degree to which they interact with the fluid they are in contact with determines how effective they are. One may understand the fundamentals of fluid dynamics by examining how fans work, how air passes through blades, and how various designs alter efficiency, pressure, and airflow.

This is the video that contain my presentation:


Visit on Turbo Machinery

When we visited the CCIT lab in Kukusan, Depok on 27 November 2023, we got to see a range of works and projects that Mr. DAI and his associates had been working on. Of the many interesting displays, one that captivated me the most was a detailed explanation of the complex workings of a turbocharger. It was interesting to observe this technology's apparent form firsthand.

In addition, Bang Edo conducted a thorough instructional session during the visit that covered the categorization and subtleties of turbomachinery. His insightful lectures really increased our comprehension of this specialist topic.

Unfortunately, I was unable to attend this discussion because of my personal circumstances. At that time, I was in Sumedang, taking care of many family responsibilities attending my grandmother's funeral. I am excited to use other time to make up for the discussion during the visit.

QnA's (Questions and Answers)

  • What is a turbocharger?

Turbocharger is a machine that forces more air into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, a turbocharger improves the engine's efficiency and performance. It works by utilizing the exhaust fumes from the engine to power a turbine, which turns a compressor. By forcing more air into the engine, this compressor improves fuel combustion and boosts power output.


  • When does a turbocharger operate?

Turbocharger runs because it uses exhaust gasses to spin the turbine and power the compressor, it operates whenever the engine is running. The turbocharger is propelled by the exhaust gases produced by the engine while it is operating, compressing incoming air to increase the engine's power output.

  • For what purpose is a turbocharger employed?

A turbocharger's primarily function is to increase engine efficiency, which allows smaller engines to generate greater power while using less fuel. It ensures more thorough fuel combustion, which improves performance especially at higher altitudes where air density is lower. It also helps reduce pollutants.

  • Where might a turbocharger be found?

Many different types of vehicles and applications use turbochargers, most notably cars, trucks, motorbikes, and even some big marine and industrial engines. They are frequently seen in contemporary automotive engines, particularly in those that have higher power requirements but smaller displacements.


  • How does turbocharger work?

A turbocharger's operation relies on using the engine's exhaust gases. Exhaust gases leave the engine through the exhaust manifold and pass past a turbine located inside the turbocharger housing. The turbine rotates as a result of the gas flow. The turbocharger's intake side has a linked compressor wheel, which is driven by a shaft connected to the spinning motion. The ambient air is drawn in and compressed by the rotating compressor wheel before being sent into the engine's intake manifold. When combined with fuel, the compressed air's higher oxygen content enables more effective combustion, boosting engine performance and power.

Turbo parts.png

  • How does a turbocharger obtain its energy?

The exhaust gases that the engine releases during combustion provide energy for the turbocharger. These hot, pressurized gases are produced by the engine during operation and are released through the exhaust system. Because the turbocharger's turbine is positioned in the flow path of these gases, the exhaust flow's force and energy cause the turbine to spin. The associated compressor wheel is then driven by the turbine's spinning action, creating pressure and forcing more air into the engine's intake system. In simple terms, the engine's exhaust fumes contain energy that would otherwise be squandered, but the turbocharger uses this energy to transform it into work that increases engine power and efficiency.

Turbocharge works.jpg

Hydraulic & Pneumatic Systems

What is Hydraulic & Pneumatic Systems?

Pneumatic and hydraulic energy conversion systems use fluids to transfer power. While they use unique fluids—gases for pneumatic systems and liquids for hydraulic systems. They operate on similar principles.

Hydraulic Systems

  • Fluid: Incompressible fluids, such as hydraulic fluid or oil, are used in hydraulic systems.
  • Functionality: To generate force and transmit power, these devices work by applying pressure to a fluid inside a closed circuit. The fluid in the system transfers force from one point to another when it is applied.
  • Parts: A pump, valves, cylinders, actuators, and hydraulic fluid make up a hydraulic system. The fluid is forced through the system by the pump, which creates pressure; valves regulate the flow of fluid and its direction. The fluid pressure is converted into mechanical work by cylinders and actuators.
  • Applications: Hydraulic presses, bulldozers, excavators, and automobile brake systems are examples of large machinery that uses hydraulic systems.

Hydraulic-system-diagram-v5 1.png

Pneumatic Systems

  • Fluid: Compressible gases, like air, are used in pneumatic systems.
  • Functionality: The air in these systems is compressed to produce pressure, which is then used to convey power and generate force. They employ air as the working fluid, but they operate similarly to hydraulic systems.
  • Parts: An air compressor, valves, cylinders, and actuators make up a pneumatic system. The air is pressured by the compressor, its flow is managed by valves, and the compressed air's energy is transformed into mechanical motion by cylinders or actuators.
  • Applications: Pneumatic systems are used in many different industries for air brakes in cars, manufacturing equipment, tools, and pneumatic cylinders for automation.


Understanding pressure equilibrium and force relationships is based on hydraulics, which is frequently explained using equations like P1 = P2 and F1 * A1 = F2 * A2. Systems for car washes offer a real-world example of these ideas in action. They use force-area connections (F1 * A1 = F2 * A2) and balanced pressure (P1 = P2) to ensure smooth and accurate operations as they employ hydraulic ideas to control the movement of brushes and sprayers.

Hydraulic-systems-primary 27c5571306.jpg


The efficiency of a hydraulic system can be influenced by various factors, including:

  • Fluid Viscosity: The viscosity of the hydraulic fluid affects how easily it flows through the system. Higher viscosity fluids might experience more internal friction, resulting in decreased efficiency. Conversely, fluids with lower viscosity can lead to potential leakage and reduced system responsiveness.
  • Fluid Contamination: Contaminants such as dirt, debris, moisture, or air bubbles in the hydraulic fluid can hinder system performance. These contaminants can cause wear and tear on components, reduce fluid effectiveness, and lead to malfunctions or system failures.
  • Component Wear and Tear: Over time, components such as pumps, valves, seals, hoses, and cylinders can wear out. This wear can cause internal leakage, reduced system pressure, and inefficiencies in power transmission. Regular maintenance and replacement of worn parts are crucial to maintain efficiency.
  • Pressure Losses: Pressure losses occur due to fluid friction in hoses, valves, fittings, and other system components. These losses can reduce the overall pressure delivered to actuators, affecting the system's ability to perform work efficiently.
  • System Leakage: Hydraulic systems can experience leakage due to worn seals, connections, or damaged components. Even minor leaks can lead to a loss of pressure and reduced efficiency over time. Monitoring and repairing leaks efficiently is essential to maintain system efficiency.
  • Temperature Changes: Extreme temperatures can impact the viscosity of the hydraulic fluid, affecting its flow characteristics. High temperatures can cause fluid breakdown or reduced lubrication properties, while low temperatures can increase fluid viscosity, hampering system performance.
  • Improper Sizing or Design: Incorrectly sized components or design flaws in the hydraulic system can lead to inefficiencies. This might include using undersized hoses or valves, mismatched components, or inadequate fluid reservoirs, all of which can impact the system's ability to generate and transmit power efficiently.
  • System Overloading: Operating the hydraulic system beyond its designed capacity or overloading it can lead to increased wear on components, decreased efficiency, and potential system failure.

Steps How to Design a Car lift as an Engineer

1. The specification needed

2. Designing

3. Calculation

4. Material Selection

5. Safety Factor

6. Calculating the cost

7. Build and testing the model for getting certification

8. Ready for replacement parts and the maintenance

Steam Turbine

Conscious Thinking Video

(Cara cerdas ingat tuhan) or CCIT is a way of thinking that purposeful mental processes that direct our understanding, judgment, and problem-solving are components of conscious thinking. The phases you've described, which include intention-setting, problem analysis, model construction, and solution formulation, point to an organized method for conscious thinking. Let's examine each stage in detail:

1. Setting intentions: This stage entails deciding on precise motives, intents, or objectives for your thought process. It involves directing your thoughts and behaviors toward a specific goal or intended result. In this case, it refers to doing with true intention, possibly motivated by morality, ethics, or personal convictions; for example, acting in alignment with moral or spiritual principles or for the greater good.

2. First Thoughts on the Issue: The focus of this stage is on comprehending the current issue. It entails identifying the desired result or solution in addition to specifying the supplied parameters, restrictions, or obstacles. Information collecting, a precise definition of the problem statement, and component analysis may be necessary during this phase.

3. Creating a Simplified System or Model: In this case, the goal is to formulate a more straightforward model or representation of the issue. This model can aid in a deeper comprehension of the dynamics, connections, or complexity of the issue. It could entail drawing mental models, diagrams, or frameworks that abstract the key components of the issue. Using this method, one can come up with possible solutions and assess their efficacy or validity.

4. Creating the Solution of Algorithm's Steps: In this last phase, we construct an organized strategy or algorithm to resolve the issue using the earlier developed simplified model as a guide.This is breaking the problem down into manageable steps or procedures. To come up with a solution, these processes could include using logic, performing mathematical calculations, coming up with creative ideas, or using a combination of methods.

This (Cara cerdas ingat tuhan) or CCIT method seems to place a strong emphasis on approaching issues and coming to decisions through careful analysis and deliberation. It combines analytical thinking (problem-solving techniques and model construction) with mindfulness (intention-setting) to produce thoughtful and significant solutions.

VIDEO YOUTUBE LINK: https:/ /youtu.be/yAVwFowtMuI

Basic Theory About Steam Turbine Cycle


A typical way to represent a steam turbine system is using an ideal Rankine cycle, which is a theoretical model with four basic components that shows how thermal energy can be converted into mechanical work. These essential elements consist of:

  • 1. Pump: Liquid water is compressed, its pressure is raised, and it is driven into the boiler by the pump to start the Rankine cycle. In order to set up the cycle for later heat transfer and energy conversion, this step makes sure that the water flow remains constant.
  • 2. Boiler: The high-pressure liquid water that the pump delivers is heated and turned into high-temperature steam inside the boiler. High-energy steam is produced during this conversion process, which is carried out by applying heat, frequently through the burning of fuels or the use of other heat sources.
  • 3. Turbine: The boiler produces high-energy steam, which is subsequently fed into the turbine. Here, the turbine's blades are driven by the expanding force of the steam, converting thermal energy into mechanical work. Steam loses heat and pressure as it moves through the turbine, releasing energy that powers the device.
  • 4. Condenser: Steam leaves the turbine and enters the condenser after it has been operating. In this part, heat is transferred to a cooling medium, usually water, causing the steam to cool and return to liquid state. The Rankine cycle may continue because of this phase-change condensation, which gets the liquid water ready to go back to the first phase of the cycle.


There are four main stages to the ideal Rankine cycle, each of which represents a thermodynamic process that is essential to the cycle's functioning:

  • Stage 1-2: Isentropic Compression in the Pump

The pump goes through an isentropic compression process in this first stage. It is implied by isentropic compression that the water compresses without exchanging heat with its surroundings. The pump increases the water's pressure, facilitating a seamless transition to the next phase.

  • Stage 2-3: Isobaric Heat Transfer into the Boiler

Moving into the next phase, the system experiences isobaric heat transfer within the boiler. Isobaric processes occur at constant pressure, wherein the high-pressure liquid water, having been elevated by the pump, absorbs heat and transforms into high-temperature steam. This process fuels the steam with the necessary energy for subsequent stages.

  • Stage 3-4: Isentropic Expansion in the Turbine

The third stage involves isentropic expansion within the turbine. As the high-energy steam generated in the boiler enters the turbine, it undergoes an expansion process without heat exchange, thereby producing mechanical work as it drives the turbine's blades. This work output is a pivotal component in the conversion of thermal energy to useful mechanical power.

  • Stage 4-1: Isobaric Heat Rejection from the Condenser

Finally, the cycle concludes with the fourth stage, characterized by isobaric heat rejection occurring within the condenser. Here, the low-pressure steam exiting the turbine enters the condenser, releasing its heat to a cooling medium, typically water, causing the steam to condense back into liquid form. This process prepares the liquid for re-entering the cycle, completing the continuous flow of the Rankine cycle.


Some generalizations and assumptions become necessary in order to account for the differences between the ideal Rankine cycle in general and the particular model in particular:

  • Alignment of the System Model with the Ideal Rankine Cycle: Adjustments are made to the system's model to correspond closely with the characteristics of the ideal Rankine cycle.
  • Approximation of System Values: Some parameters within the system are estimated or approximated to facilitate the modeling process, considering that precise values might not always be available or feasible to obtain.
  • Interpolation for Property Table Values: When necessary, values sourced from property tables are derived through interpolation methods, ensuring data consistency and accuracy for system calculations, except in cases where interpolation isn't feasible due to limitations in available data.


  • Volume = 600 ml
  • Time = 12,7 s

Prior to computation, certain essential assumptions must be made:

  • 1. Standardizing the machinery to conform to the traditional Rankine cycle.
  • 2. Deriving the enthalpy value for stage 2 by referencing the pressure from the property table.
  • 3. Estimating temperatures for calculations.
  • 4. Assuming equal pressures: P1 = P4 and P2 = P3.
  • 5. Adhering to the principles of the ideal Rankine cycle.
  • Table1 fachri.png
  • Table3 fachri.png


Once the values are computed, it's possible to create a flowchart illustrating the sequential steps undertaken in the process.



  • Power input:
    • 22,0954 W
    • -30,708 W
  • The system's efficiency can be determined using two distinct methods—either by analyzing work alongside heat or by assessing power in conjunction with the rate of energy transfer. Both methods produce identical results.
    • 7,8 %
    • 7,8 %

Youtube Link

https:/ /youtu.be/U95aLFXfEvQ


1. Even though I always made an effort to understand the topic of Energy Conversion Systems, there were times when I may not have given it my all. I'm determined to increase my commitment and work harder in the future.

2. Seeing that there is always more to be gained beyond these experiences, I understand that my methods of learning and thinking need to be continuously improved.

3. Research on conscious thought has provided information on the critical function of intention. I see the importance of aim and how it directs us, avoiding misunderstandings about what needs to be done.

4. Although I have made a genuine attempt to understand the material, there have been times when I may not have done so. I'm now resolved to increase my dedication and work toward greater understanding.

5. Beyond the above specific examples, I understand that my ways of thinking and learning still need to change.

6. Studies on conscious mind have pointed out how important intention is. It serves as a compass, guaranteeing that important duties and activities are understood.

The lessons I learned from Pak DAI have had a big influence on how I see the world as an engineer. All the information given has been really helpful in educating me about the value of intention, hard work, and critical thinking in creating a more promising career for myself.