# Kainalu Malik Santoso

## Introduction

Bismillah,

Perkenalkan nama saya Kainalu Malik Santoso mahasiswa teknik perkapalan 2019 yang saat ini sedang mengambil kelas metode numerik, saya memiliki hobi bermain futsal dan mengobrol dengan orang yang ada di sekitar saya

## Resume 26/05/23

Pertemuan pertama tanggal 26/05/23, Pak DAI memberikan penjelasan mengenai cara mengejar yang ia terapkan yaitu melalui Consiousness, yaitu kesadaran diri kita masing masing. Sebelum menyelesaikan masalah kita harus paham apa itu Consiousness agar dapat menjawab lebih baik dan melihat ke segalah arah sudut pandang terhadap masalah tersebut. Hal ini Pak DAI contohkan pada study case yaitu berupa soal operasi matematika. Kita beranggapan bahwa operasi matematika pasti memiliki nilai yang eksak, akan tetapi pada soal tersebut memberikan hasil yang tidak pasti. Pada pertemuan ini juga Pak DAI menugaskan untuk membuat tabung hidrogen dengan volume 1 liter bertekanan 8 bar.

## Case Study : Design & Optimization Pressurized Hydrogen Storage

Week 1 progress task: Design and optimization of a 1 liter compressed hydrogen storage tank (8 bar). Here are some steps and considerations to keep in mind when designing a hydrogen tank concept with a capacity of 1 liter, pressure of 8 bar, and a maximum production cost of Rp 500,000.

```1.Tank material:
```
```Consider using strong, lightweight materials to minimize manufacturing costs and meet strength requirements. Examples of materials that can be used are aluminum or carbon fiber. This material is typically strong enough to withstand pressures of 8 bar.
```

2. Tank design and size:

```An appropriately sized and shaped tank that can hold 1 liter of hydrogen and withstand a pressure of 8 bar must be designed. Smaller tank sizes require less material and help control production costs.
```

3. Welding and construction:

```Make sure the tank is strong and well connected. Welding processes such as TIG welding (tungsten inert gas) and MIG welding (metal inert gas) can be used to connect tank components. Make sure the welding process is done carefully and meets safety standards.
```

4. Lock and seal system:

```Make sure the tank has an effective sealing system to prevent hydrogen leakage. Tanks are thoroughly inspected and leak tested to ensure the required pressure is maintained during use.
```

Five. Protection and safety:

```Make sure the tank is equipped with a protection system and pressure relief valve to reduce the risk of failure and overpressure. Safety factor is very important in hydrogen tank design.
```

6. Production cost:

```When designing tanks, keep in mind that the total cost of production is within the Rp limit. Half a million. Choose efficient materials and construction methods to achieve this goal. Consider material costs, labor costs, and other production costs.
```

It is important to note that proper design of hydrogen tanks requires a thorough understanding of pressure tank technology and safety. When designing tanks, we should also pay attention to risk management in tank manufacturing. You can consider the following points:

```1. Risk identification:
```
```Identify risks associated with hydrogen tanks, such as: B. Hydrogen leaks, structural defects, overpressure, or unwanted chemical reactions. Also be aware of relevant environmental and safety factors. 2. Risk analysis:
```
```Conduct a systematic risk analysis to assess the likelihood and impact of each identified risk. Prioritize risks by severity and likelihood.
```

3. Risk mitigation:

```Based on the results of the risk analysis, develop an effective risk mitigation plan to mitigate the identified risks. For example, the introduction of highly sensitive hydrogen leak detection systems, the selection of materials with appropriate strength, and the installation of highly reliable pressure relief devices.
```

4.Tank material:

```Consider the risk factors and select the suitable material for the hydrogen tank. Make sure the material is good at corrosion resistance and hydrogen embrittlement. We thoroughly test our materials to make sure they fit. 5. Structural design:
```
```Design tank structures with strength, safety and risk in mind. Use structural analysis techniques such as finite element analysis (FEA) to ensure proper strength and structural integrity.
```

6. Welding and joining:

```Make sure your tank welds and joints are done carefully and comply with safety standards. Perform non-destructive testing to check the quality of welds and joints.
```

7. Leak and pressure test:

```Perform pressure and leak tests on a regular basis to ensure tank integrity. Implement rigorous testing protocols and create test logs to track results.
```

8th place. Emergency pressure relief system:

```Install an emergency pressure relief system. B. A pressure relief valve that activates when pressure exceeds safe limits. Make sure your system is well designed and tested regularly.
```

9. Operator training and safety procedures:

```Comprehensive operator training on hydrogen tank handling, operation and maintenance.
```

10. Regular monitoring and maintenance:

```Perform regular monitoring and maintenance of hydrogen tanks to detect problems
```

## Final Report

Geometry Constrain

To optimize hydrogen storage with a capacity of 1 liter, a pressure of 8 bar, and a maximum budget of 500,000, these calculations can be done using Python or manually. The following is the calculation using Python: import math from scipy.optimize import minimize

1. Define the objective function

def calculate_surface_area(x):

```   radius, height = x
return 2 * math.pi * (radius**2) + 2 * math.pi * radius * height
```
1. Define the volume constraint function

def check_volume_constraint(x):

```   radius, height = x
return math.pi * (radius**2) * height - 1000
```
1. Initial estimation for the radius and height (in mm)

initial_guess = [10, 100]

1. Define the bounds for the radius and height (in mm)

bounds = [(0, None), (0, None)]

1. Define the volume constraint as an equality constraint

volume_constraint = {'type': 'eq', 'fun': check_volume_constraint}

1. Minimize the surface area while satisfying the volume constraint

result = minimize(calculate_surface_area, initial_guess, method='SLSQP', bounds=bounds, constraints=volume_constraint)

1. Extract the optimal radius, height, and minimum surface area

optimal_radius = result.x * 10 # Convert back to millimeters optimal_height = result.x * 10 # Convert back to millimeters min_surface_area = result.fun * 100 # Convert to square millimeters

1. Print the results (in mm)

print(f"\n\nOptimal Radius: {optimal_radius:.2f} mm") print(f"Optimal Height: {optimal_height:.2f} mm") print(f"Minimum Surface Area: {min_surface_area:.2f} mm²\n\n") From the code above, we obtain the following data: Optimal Radius: 54.19 mm Optimal Height: 108.38 mm Minimum Surface Area: 55358.10 mm² This code is performing an optimization calculation for a geometric problem. Specifically, it aims to minimize the surface area of a cylinder subject to a volume constraint. The cylinder represents a hydrogen storage tank with a given volume capacity. The objective function calculates the surface area of the cylinder, which is to be minimized. The constraint function ensures that the volume of the cylinder meets a specified value (in this case, 1000 units). The `minimize` function from the `scipy.optimize` module is used to find the optimal values for the radius and height of the cylinder that satisfy the volume constraint while minimizing the surface area. The code then prints the optimal values for the radius and height, as well as the minimum surface area achieved.

Cost Evaluation Code from scipy.optimize import minimize

1. Price and capacity

price_per_unit = 100000 # Price per unit of hydrogen storage capacity_per_unit = 1 # Capacity of hydrogen storage per unit

1. Maximum budget

max_budget = 500000

1. Objective function

def objective_function(x):

```   return -x * capacity_per_unit
```
1. Constraint function

def budget_constraint(purchase_amount):

```   return max_budget - (price_per_unit * purchase_amount)
```

budget_constraint_eq = {'type': 'ineq', 'fun': budget_constraint}

1. Initial value

x0 = 0

1. Bounds

bounds = [(0, None)]

1. Solve the optimization problem

solution = minimize(objective_function, x0, method='SLSQP', bounds=bounds, constraints=[budget_constraint_eq])

1. Print the results

print("Status:", "Optimal" if solution.success else "No solution found") print("Number of hydrogen storage units to be purchased:", solution.x) print("Total storage capacity:", solution.x * capacity_per_unit, "liters") print("Total cost:", solution.x * price_per_unit, "Rupiah")

from scipy.optimize import minimize

1. Price and capacity

price_per_unit = 100000 # Price per unit of hydrogen storage capacity_per_unit = 1 # Capacity of hydrogen storage per unit

1. Maximum budget

max_budget = 500000

1. Objective function

def objective_function(x):

```   return -x * capacity_per_unit
```
1. Constraint function

def budget_constraint(purchase_amount):

```   return max_budget - (price_per_unit * purchase_amount)
```

budget_constraint_eq = {'type': 'ineq', 'fun': budget_constraint}

1. Initial value

x0 = 0

1. Bounds

bounds = [(0, None)]

1. Solve the optimization problem

solution = minimize(objective_function, x0, method='SLSQP', bounds=bounds, constraints=[budget_constraint_eq])

1. Print the results

print("Status:", "Optimal" if solution.success else "No solution found") print("Number of hydrogen storage units to be purchased:", solution.x) print("Total storage capacity:", solution.x * capacity_per_unit, "liters") print("Total cost:", solution.x * price_per_unit, "Rupiah") This code shows us that the optimal results for creating a hydrogen storage system with a budget of Rp500.000,00 is to make 5 tanks with a capacity of 1 liters each. We can also make a graph through this code above: import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

1. Price and capacity

price_per_unit = 100000 # Price per unit of hydrogen storage capacity_per_unit = 1 # Capacity of hydrogen storage per unit

1. Maximum budget

max_budget = 500000

1. Initialize variables

best_unit_count = 0 best_total_capacity = 0 best_total_cost = 0

1. Initialize lists for the graph

unit_count_list = [] total_capacity_list = []

1. Iterate to find the optimal solution

for unit_count in range(int(max_budget / price_per_unit) + 1):

```   total_capacity = unit_count * capacity_per_unit
total_cost = unit_count * price_per_unit
```
```   if total_capacity > best_total_capacity and total_cost <= max_budget:
best_unit_count = unit_count
best_total_capacity = total_capacity
best_total_cost = total_cost
```
```   # Add data to the list for the graph
unit_count_list.append(unit_count)
```

total_capacity_list.append(total_capacity)

1. Print the results

print("Number of hydrogen storage units to be purchased:", best_unit_count) print("Total storage capacity:", best_total_capacity, "liters") print("Total cost:", best_total_cost, "Rupiah")

1. Display the graph

plt.plot(unit_count_list, total_capacity_list) plt.xlabel('Number of Hydrogen Storage Units') plt.ylabel('Total Storage Capacity (liters)') plt.title('Hydrogen Storage Optimization') plt.grid(True) plt.show()

Conclusion

Overall, by considering design optimization, safety measures, cost-effective choices, and conducting thorough testing, it is possible to develop an efficient and budget-friendly pressurized hydrogen storage system. Consulting with experts in the field and following relevant regulations and standards will further ensure a successful and safe design.

## Final Presentation

Bismillah, Below this is my final presentation about the design process of Pressurized Hydrogen Storage