Fadhil Fabiano Hendis

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My name is Fadhil Fabiano Hendis NPM 2006489110, I've been referred to as Fadhil or Bian. I am 20 years old, I was born on 25 February 2003 in south Jakarta and I’m currently in my sixth semester of study at Universitas Indonesia.

I have plenty interest in life, but the one I'd like to share is photography. Having a small memory kept in the form of a picture appeals to me, and I believe that one photograph may hold many story for other people. Even if I'm still a beginner, I want to learn more!

I appreciate you taking the time to read this brief essay about me. Thank you.

MR. DAI CCIT House Visit

CCIT House Visit

On Friday, my friends and I visited CCIT and were amazed not only by its exterior, but also by the wide range of content inside. What impressed me the most was the abundance of Azolla pools. Azolla plants have a high crude protein content, ranging from 23% to 30%, and a low lignin content, making them easily digestible for livestock. Thus, Azolla plants are an excellent source of animal feed, especially for ducks, chickens, goats, cows, and rabbits.

Mr. Tanwir and Ms. Illa also explained a machine that uses Azolla and animal feces as its fuel source. These materials are heated up to 300-400 degrees Celsius using flue gases from a generator to power the machine. The gases then flow up from the pyrolysis tank to the condenser. This process is considered environmentally friendly since it uses green energy from Azolla and animal feces. Furthermore, Mr. DAI has a handsome goat named Saun.

During the visit, we learned that Azolla plants are not only a good source of animal feed but also have several environmental benefits. Azolla is a natural biofertilizer, which can be used to enrich soil and reduce the need for chemical fertilizers. Moreover, Azolla is known for its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, which makes it a potential alternative to synthetic nitrogen fertilizers that contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. We were amazed to learn about the potential of Azolla plants in promoting sustainable agriculture and reducing the environmental impact of animal husbandry. The visit to CCIT was not only educational but also inspiring, and we left with a newfound appreciation for the potential of Azolla plants as a sustainable solution for feeding the world's growing population.


Fadhil : What’s the correlation between battery factory, sugar factory and fuel?
ChatGPT : The correlation between a battery factory, sugar factory, and fuel is related to the production and use of ethanol, which is a type of alcohol that can be used as a fuel or as a component of battery electrolytes. Sugar factories are known for producing sugar from sugar cane or sugar beets. However, during the process of extracting sugar from these plants, a byproduct known as molasses is produced. Molasses is a thick, dark syrup that is rich in sugars, minerals, and other nutrients. Molasses can be used as a feedstock for the production of ethanol, which is typically produced through a process of fermentation and distillation. In some cases, sugar factories themselves may operate ethanol plants as a way to generate additional revenue from their molasses byproduct. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles, either on its own or blended with gasoline. It is also used as a component of battery electrolytes in some types of batteries, such as those used in electric vehicles. Ethanol is particularly useful in battery electrolytes because it is a highly polar solvent that can dissolve a variety of salts, allowing for the transfer of charged ions between the battery's electrodes. In summary, the correlation between a battery factory, sugar factory, and fuel is that sugar factories can produce molasses, which can be used as a feedstock for ethanol production. Ethanol can then be used as a fuel or as a component of battery electrolytes, which are used in batteries produced by battery factories. This connection highlights the interrelatedness of various industries in the production and use of different types of energy and materials.
Fadhil : Can sugarcane be the main source of ethanol?
ChatGPT : Sugarcane is one of the most important sources of ethanol today and it has the potential to be a major source of biofuel in the future. Sugarcane is an ideal source of ethanol because it is a high-yielding and energy-efficient crop, meaning that it produces a large amount of energy in relation to the amount of energy required to grow and process it. Additionally, sugarcane is relatively easy to grow and has a wide range of uses beyond ethanol production, such as producing sugar, molasses, and other products.
Fadhil : Can you show me the literature regarding "sugarcane as a source of ethanol" ?
ChatGPT : Certainly! Here are some references that provide more information about the use of sugarcane as a source of ethanol:
Ferreira-Leitão, V., Rodrigues, J., & Maciel Filho, R. (2016). A review on ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse: Chemical and technological perspectives. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 52, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.3303/CET1652001
Goldemberg, J., Coelho, S. T., & Guardabassi, P. (2004). The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane. Energy Policy, 32(6), 677-687. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4215(03)00121-5
Macedo, I. C., Seabra, J. E. A., & Silva, J. E. A. R. (2008). Greenhouse gases emissions in the production and use of ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: The 2005/2006 averages and a prediction for 2020. Biomass and Bioenergy, 32(7), 582-595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2007.12.006
Rajendran, K., Rajoli, S. R., & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2016). Current status and future prospects of bioethanol production from sugarcane and cassava wastes in Thailand. Bioresource Technology Reports, 1, 50-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biteb.2016.02.004
Rosillo-Calle, F., & Cortez, L. A. B. (2017). Sugarcane ethanol: Contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment. In S. E. Jørgensen, F. Rosillo-Calle, & J. Fargione (Eds.), Biofuels for a more sustainable future: An assessment of the sustainability of biofuels using selected sustainability indicators (pp. 49-76). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-804195-9.00003-6
These references cover a range of topics related to sugarcane ethanol production and use, including the technological and chemical aspects of production, environmental impacts, and the current status and future prospects of bioethanol production from sugarcane wastes in different regions.
Fadhil : How did you know sugarcane is an ideal source for ethanol?
ChatGPT : As an AI language model, I have been trained on vast amounts of data and information. The statement that sugarcane is an ideal source for ethanol is based on scientific research and industry practice, which has been documented in academic papers, reports, and other sources. Sugarcane is a highly productive crop that is grown in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, particularly in countries such as Brazil, India, and Thailand. It is rich in fermentable sugars, which can be converted into ethanol through a relatively simple process. Additionally, sugarcane has a high energy yield, meaning that it produces more energy than is required to grow and process it. Research has also shown that sugarcane ethanol has a lower carbon footprint than gasoline and other fossil fuels, making it an attractive option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change. Overall, the suitability of sugarcane as a source of ethanol is based on a combination of factors, including its productivity, energy efficiency, and sustainability.
Fadhil : Are you sure about your data?
ChatGPT : As an AI language model, I strive to provide accurate information based on the data and information available to me. However, as with any source of information, there is always the potential for errors or inaccuracies. If you have any specific concerns or questions about the data I have presented, please feel free to let me know and I can try to provide further clarification or sources to support my statements.
Human and AI


What I can think of is that AI can only be used as a supporting tool, never as the "main" one. due to the alleged uncertainly or unsureness of AI. When an artificial intelligence system is unable to confidently respond to a question or task, this is referred to as AI unsureness. Numerous factors, such as insufficient or conflicting data, ambiguous or unclear instructions, or restrictions in the algorithms or models the system is using, can cause this to happen.

AI systems are frequently designed to provide a level of certainty or confidence in their responses, such as by providing a probability score or confidence interval. However, in some cases, the system may be unable to provide a confident response and must instead indicate its uncertainty.

Users who are expecting a definitive answer or response may find this difficult, as uncertainty can lead to confusion or frustration. However, it is critical to recognize that uncertainty is a natural part of any decision-making process, whether performed by a human or an AI system.

To address AI uncertainty, researchers and developers are investigating new techniques and algorithms, such as probabilistic reasoning, fuzzy logic, and Bayesian networks, that can assist AI systems in dealing with ambiguity and uncertainty. These approaches aim to provide more robust and reliable AI systems capable of dealing with complex and uncertain situations.

Butvinik, D. (n.d.). Uncertainty Quantification in Artificial Intelligence-based Systems - KDnuggets. KDnuggets. Retrieved February 24, 2023, from https://www.kdnuggets.com/uncertainty-quantification-in-artificial-intelligence-based-systems.html


I regret what I did and apologize to Mr. DAI and Bang Tanwir for my lateness to class on Friday, February 24, 2023. I hope to change my attitude. Thank you Mr. DAI and Bang Tanwir

CLASS SUMMARY 24/02/2023 ICE Modeling on OpenModelica

We were given a tutorial today with Bang Tanwir on OpenModelica for ICE. An internal combustion engine (ICE) burns fuel and air to produce power and fuel gases. Refrigerant cooling is also required for ICE. We can import the library because it is available in OpenModelica and contains the ICE, the library called ThermoSysPro.

Fadhil ICE OM Simulation

These are modeling scheme on OpenModelica regarding Internal Combustion Engine.

Fadhil ICE OM Result

These are the results from the simulation that I want to share. The following values are included: active power, fuel power available, engine electrical power, engine mechanical power, and power of thermal losses and cooling of the engine.

CLASS SUMMARY 03/03/2023 Pyrolysis

Pyrolisis Illustration

Class session is being led by two teaching assistants, with Professor Adi join in at the end. Their lecture revolves around the intricate science of combustion, exploring both thermochemical and biochemical processes, as well as various product-driven methods, such as gasification, liquid, and combustion. In particular, they delve into pyrolysis, an oxygen-starved combustion that requires biomass to be dried and cut prior to ignition for optimal energy output. To achieve the desired results, pyrolysis necessitates constant heat or the presence of a catalyst. One of its key benefits is the versatility of its end products, which can range from gases to liquids.

The end products of pyrolysis can be quite versatile, and they depend on various factors such as the type of biomass used, the temperature at which the pyrolysis occurs, and the method used to capture and store the end products.

Important product of pyrolysis is biochar, which is a carbon-rich solid material that is similar to charcoal. Biochar can be used as a soil amendment to improve soil quality, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and sequester carbon in the soil.

Overall, the versatility of pyrolysis end products makes it an attractive technology for the conversion of biomass into a range of valuable products, including renewable energy, soil amendments, and specialty chemicals.

CLASS SUMMARY 07/03/2023 Desalination

Desalination Illustration
Biochar Usefulness

Desalination is a method used to remove minerals from saltwater. Desalination more generally refers to the process of removing salts and minerals from a target substance, such as soil, which is problematic for agriculture. Saltwater can be desalinated to make it drinkable by boiling the water, catching the steam, and discarding the salt. Optionally, you could force the water through filters that capture the salt while letting the liquid through. Although the latter is the more contemporary procedure, both take a lot of energy. Let's talk about the second option, graphene can be chosen as a material for the desalination filter. Graphene is a carbon allotrope composed of a single sheet of atoms organized in a hexagonal lattice nanostructure. The name is taken from graphite, reflecting the abundance of double bonds in the carbon allotrope found in graphite. The use of graphene have outstanding filtering performance and mechanical qualities, but it is still hard to produced.

Biomass is material derived from recently living creatures and used in the creation of bioenergy. Examples include wood, wood byproducts, energy crops, agricultural waste, and organic waste from commercial and residential sources. The main biomass energy source nowadays is wood and wood waste. The light-weight, black residue that is left over after biomass is pyrolyzed and is composed of carbon and ashes is known as biochar.

In summary, Desalination is a method of removing minerals from saltwater, which can be achieved by boiling the water and discarding the salt or using filters to capture the salt while letting the liquid through. Graphene is a material that can be used for desalination filters due to its outstanding filtering performance and mechanical qualities. However, it is still challenging to produce. Biomass is a material derived from recently living creatures that can be used for bioenergy, and examples include wood, energy crops, agricultural waste, and organic waste. Wood and wood waste are currently the main biomass energy sources. Biochar is the black residue left over after biomass is pyrolyzed and is composed of carbon and ashes.

PowerPoints Presentation


QUIZ 02 28/03/2023

Page 01
Page 02

Hands-on PROJECT



Rasendriya's Machine
My Alumunium Plate


We were given a joint project by Mr. DAI and Prof. Adi so that we could learn more about the ECS 02 topic. This project will examine the power output produced by a hydro fuel-powered generator with different parameters of plate type, thickness, and dimension. It is based on Rasendriya's project on gathering hydro fuel.

Code Using Python - https://colab.research.google.com/drive/1mAKCXZdlIy7-DY3iQlseKfdKfyE0pyLk

Personal Input/Suggestion

I have an input on how to improve the electrolysis bubble formation and collection in order to increase the yield of hydrogen gas.

Firstly, Increase the surface area of the electrodes. Electrolysis reactions occur at the surface of the electrodes, so increasing the surface area of the electrodes can increase the amount of hydrogen bubbles that are generated during electrolysis. This can be achieved by using electrodes with a larger surface area, or by increasing the number of electrodes in the electrolysis cell.

Second, Increase the voltage. Electrolysis requires energy input in the form of an applied voltage, so increasing the voltage applied to the electrodes can increase the rate of hydrogen bubble formation. However, care should be taken to avoid overvoltage, which can result in the production of unwanted byproducts or damage to the electrodes.

Third, Use a catalyst. A catalyst is a substance that can increase the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the process. Using a catalyst on the surface of the electrodes can increase the rate of hydrogen bubble formation, and can also make the bubbles smaller and easier to collect. Catalysts commonly used for electrolysis of water include platinum, iridium, and ruthenium.

Fourth, Improve electrolyte circulation. Electrolyte circulation is important for removing hydrogen bubbles from the surface of the electrodes and replenishing the electrolyte with fresh reactants. Improving the circulation of the electrolyte around the electrodes can help to remove hydrogen bubbles more efficiently, increasing the yield of hydrogen gas.

Fifth, Reduce impurities. Impurities in the electrolyte, such as dissolved salts or other substances, can interfere with the electrolysis reaction and reduce the efficiency of hydrogen bubble formation and collection. Reducing impurities in the electrolyte can help to improve the efficiency of the reaction, increasing the yield of hydrogen gas. Purification techniques such as distillation or reverse osmosis can be used to remove impurities from the electrolyte before electrolysis.

Hands-On Experience and Analysis

Here are my understanding during the hands-on experience on Rasendriya's house.

Instalasi Percobaan
Percobaan Dengan 10 Amperes
Percobaan Dengan 8 Amperes
Percobaan Dengan 6 Amperes

The hands-on experience covers the electrolysis procedure for capturing hydrogen gas, which involves the use of electrical energy to separate water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen gases. The method, commonly referred to as water electrolysis, involves running an electric current through a water solution that contains an electrolyte. When a current flows through water, the electrolyte, which aids in the conductance of electricity, causes the water molecules to disintegrate into gases of hydrogen and oxygen.

The cathode, the electrolysis cell's negatively charged electrode, collects hydrogen gas, whereas the anode, the cell's positively charged electrode, collects oxygen gas. To produce hydrogen gas, the electrolysis process necessitates a substantial amount of electricity, which must be kept in mind.

Electrolysis's effect on the environment relies on where the energy comes from that powers the procedure. The technique can be regarded as an eco-friendly and sustainable way to produce hydrogen gas if the electricity is generated using renewable energy sources like solar or wind power. However, the process might not be as environmentally favorable if non-renewable resources like coal or natural gas are employed to create the power.

In conclusion, the electrolysis method for capturing hydrogen gas involves using electrical energy to separate water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen gases. Even though the process uses a lot of energy, creating hydrogen gas using renewable electricity sources can make it sustainable.


Mid Term Presentation, https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1apiYvWqWk88WQoymlGqpQGcTJl9D3t4Dy7Bs1Q1Dagk/edit#slide=id.g22c66782de7_0_40

Hydrogen Capture Programming
Hydrogen Capture Programming Result
ICE Programming
ICE Programming Parameter
ICE Programming Result

Presentation regarding "Biochar Biogas Implementation In Apartments or Housing" with Prof. Adi

The link to the presentation are provided below,


1. Your Thought on Learning ECS?

We thought that learning Energy Conversion Systems is very important. Learning about energy conversion systems is important due to its relevance to sustainable energy transitions, its significance in engineering and design, its environmental implications, its role in energy management and efficiency, its interdisciplinary nature, and the career opportunities it offers. By acquiring knowledge in this field, individuals can contribute to addressing global energy challenges and drive the transition towards a more sustainable future.

2. Strategy in ECS on Industry and Residence.

Biochar and Bio Gas on Residence

Biochar is a type of charcoal produced through the process of pyrolysis, which involves heating organic materials in the absence of oxygen. When incorporated into the soil, biochar can enhance its fertility and improve its water-holding capacity.

The strategy on Biochar uses.

Production: Biochar can be produced from various organic materials, such as wood chips, or agricultural waste.

Composting: Mix biochar with your compost to improve nutrient retention and microbial activity.

Soil amendment: Incorporate biochar into your garden beds or potted plants to enhance soil fertility.

Mulching: Spread a layer of biochar on the soil surface around plants to retain moisture and suppress weeds.

On the other hand, Biogas is a renewable energy source produced by the anaerobic digestion of organic waste. It mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide and can be used for cooking, heating, or electricity generation.

How to make Biogas technology?

Digester : Install an anaerobic digester, which is a sealed container where organic waste decomposes to produce biogas. The digester can be small-scale and designed to handle household waste or yard trimmings.

Feedstock : Collect organic waste such as kitchen scraps, food waste, and yard waste. Avoid adding meat, dairy products, or oils as they can hinder the digestion process.

Maintenance : The digester requires regular maintenance, such as monitoring temperature, pH, and gas production. The produced biogas can be collected and stored for later use.

Utilization : Connect the biogas system to a stove or heater designed for biogas use. It can replace conventional cooking gas or heating systems.

3. What to do in order to save energy?

Use organic materials for biochar and biogas production that have high energy content and can efficiently generate biochar or biogas. For example, select woody biomass or crop residues that are rich in carbon for biochar production, as they tend to produce more stable and energy-rich biochar. For biogas production, focus on easily digestible feedstocks that yield higher gas production.

4. Real Life example.

Mr. DAI Motorcycles are the concrete evidence of biomass energy into mechanical movement.


The presentation file are provided below,


The experiment was based on a straightforward electrolysis experiment. We developed a hydrogen generator that can generate hydrogen atoms from the sodium bicarbonate electrolyte. Aluminum/stainless steel metal plates are used as conductors to link the power source's anode and cathode, whereby the byproduct of hydrogen at the cathode and oxygen at the anode is produced. A mineral water bottle is then used to store the hydrogen gas. Overall, the experiment aimed to create a simple and efficient method of generating hydrogen gas using readily available materials and electrolysis. The use of aluminum and stainless steel plates as conductors proved to be effective in producing hydrogen gas from the sodium bicarbonate electrolyte. The hydrogen gas was then stored in a mineral water bottle for future use.

The objective of this experiment is to explore and understand the production of hydrogen gas using simple tools. The experiment aims to investigate alternative methods that can establish hydrogen production with readily available equipment. By studying and comprehending the processes involved in hydrogen production, researchers seek to identify efficient and sustainable approaches. Additionally, the experiment focuses on studying different storage systems to understand how hydrogen can be stored effectively and safely. The specific method employed in this experiment is hydrolysis, which involves splitting water molecules to obtain hydrogen gas. Through this approach, the experiment aims to evaluate the efficiency, scalability, and applicability of hydrolysis for hydrogen production. Overall, the objective is to gain comprehensive knowledge about hydrogen production, from its generation using simple tools to the process of storage, with a specific focus on the use of hydrolysis.

To operate the electrolysis kit, follow these steps. Begin by inserting the anode and cathode of the power source into the designated screw drafts or holders. The anode, typically the positive electrode, should be placed at one end, while the cathode, the negative electrode, goes at the other end. This ensures proper positioning for the subsequent electrolysis process. Once the electrodes are securely in place, connect the power source to a nearby power outlet. This step establishes the circuit and enables the flow of electric current through the electrolysis kit. It's essential to ensure a reliable power supply for efficient operation. With the power source connected, you can now observe the cathode for any signs of hydrogen production. During electrolysis, as electricity passes through the water, hydrogen gas is generated at the cathode, often accompanied by the release of oxygen gas at the anode. If you notice bubbles forming at the cathode, it indicates the successful production of hydrogen gas. This observation serves as confirmation that the electrolysis process is generating hydrogen. By following these steps and monitoring the cathode for bubble formation, you can effectively operate the electrolysis kit and verify the existence of hydrogen production.

The setup of the electrolysis kit involved modifying a plastic container by drilling holes on its sides to accommodate the rod and ensuring it was sealed with glue to prevent leaks. The top lid of the container was also drilled to create openings for the hose's output. The hose was then connected to a bottle where the generated hydrogen gas would collect. While the construction of the electrolysis kit proceeded relatively smoothly, the process of gluing the hoses and sealing the drilled holes posed challenges. It was crucial to maintain the watertight integrity of the container, which had already been drilled, despite the additional holes. Thus, a substantial amount of glue was used to fill the gaps and create a tight seal. Similarly, a significant amount of glue was applied to ensure an airtight cover for the hydrogen gas, which was made by cutting the top portion of a mineral water gallon and placing it on one of the metal plates. The excessive use of glue aimed to minimize hydrogen loss and maximize the flow of hydrogen into the mineral water bottle. Screw nuts were used to separate the anode and cathode plates, providing adequate space between them to avoid interference with the electrolysis process. While sodium chloride (salt) is commonly used as an electrolyte in model experiments, further research revealed that its by-product, chlorine gas, is hazardous to inhale. Therefore, sodium bicarbonate was utilized as the electrolyte in this experiment, as it produces carbon dioxide as a by-product, posing no harm to the experimenter during the process.

Upon activating the kit and correctly connecting the anodes and cathodes, it was noticed that bubbles were generated at the cathode section of the metal plates, indicating the occurrence of hydrogen production. To facilitate safe ignition testing of the hydrogen, an additional nozzle and a one-way valve were incorporated into the storage compartment of the mineral water bottle. However, despite confirming the presence of hydrogen, the quantity produced was insufficient to ignite the nozzle.

Gathering data in this experiment may encounter complications due to various factors. These factors can contribute to issues such as the power source's inability to reach the maximum hydrogen gas production capacity. Although gaseous hydrogen bubbles are observed, they fail to generate the necessary pressure required for the nozzle or the one-way switch valve. Additionally, potential leaks may occur within the entire hydrogen generator system, whether originating from the top or the attachment holes of the rubber tubing. In summary, the hydrogen gas bubbles fall short of achieving the desired maximum production rate, resulting in insufficient pressure to create the anticipated hydrogen torch when passing through the one-way valve and nozzle.

The results of this experiment allow for the drawing of several conclusions. First off, it is clear that the electrolysis kit used in the experiment can produce hydrogen. The successful electrolysis-based production of hydrogen gas attests to the kit's efficiency in facilitating this production.

However, the experiment also revealed that a significant amount of hydrogen cannot be formed in a short period of time. This implies that the given kit's rate of hydrogen production is relatively slow. Therefore, it would take a long time to build up a significant volume if the objective was to generate a lot of hydrogen.

The experiment also demonstrates that with a low voltage input, very little hydrogen is produced. The amount of electrical energy supplied has a direct impact on the production of hydrogen gas. It is clear that there is a direct relationship between the applied voltage and the amount of hydrogen produced when the voltage is low because the resulting hydrogen production is constrained.

In conclusion, this experiment shows that using the electrolysis kit, hydrogen production is indeed feasible. It also highlights the slow production rate, emphasizing how much time is needed to accumulate a sizable amount of hydrogen. In addition, the voltage input has a direct impact on how much hydrogen is produced, with low voltages producing the least amount of hydrogen.

OpenModelica Result

Below are the experiment I done using OpenModelica, where m stands for my aluminium plate weight which is 0.4 kg; c is the heat capacity of water; deltat is the temperature difference.

OME Code

The loop iterates from 1 to numIterations and calculates the heat transfer using the equation q[i] = m * c * deltaT, where i represents the current iteration. In this code, I have modified the assignment statement q[i] = m * c * deltaT; to q[i] = i * (m * c * deltaT);. By multiplying i with the heat transfer value m * c * deltaT, the heat transfer value will be incremented by 1 for each iteration.

OME Graph

For each increases of deltat it shows a stable raise of q

OME Result

Above are the result of the calculation using OpenModelica to find the value of q