Bagas Tegar Bhadravyata

From ccitonlinewiki
Jump to: navigation, search


Assalamualaikum Wr Wb. My name is Bagas Tegar Bhadravyata, currently taking ECS 2 as a course that i really wanted to learn.

Personal Project

Topic Internal Combustion Engine

influence of side oil on 2 stroke engine

Synopsis Motors with 2-stroke or 2-stroke engines are no longer produced in Indonesia. This is because the Indonesian government has imposed a ban on motorcycle manufacturers to produce motorbikes with 2-stroke engines. The motor with this engine is considered not environmentally friendly because Indonesia has followed the Euro 4 emission standards in 2018.

Maybe some of us have had a 2 stroke engine. But did you know that currently the selling price of used motorbikes with 2 stroke engines is still considered high? Call it the Yamaha RX-King and Yamaha F1ZR motorbikes, which are still much sought after and loved by collectors of old motorbikes. Many collectors must have known that motorbikes with 2-stroke engines have great sound and power, fast acceleration and are considered lighter. But unfortunately, 2-stroke motorbikes are also known as motorbikes that are wasteful of fuel and also motorbikes that give a lot of air pollution because of the thick smoke that is released from the exhaust. In addition, 2-stroke motorbike users have to spend more to buy side oil in order to maintain the performance of their favorite 2-stroke motorbike. Then what is the reason for 2-stroke motors need side oil? Here's an explanation.

Just like motorbikes in general, 2-stroke motorbikes also use engine oil, but the difference is that 2-stroke motorbikes have additional oil, namely side oil. Side oil is something that is vital on a 2-stroke motorbike. Because side oil has a different task from engine oil. Side oil carries out an important task, namely lubricating the cylinder parts on the engine where the side oil will later burn with the fuel. In addition, side oil also has a positive impact on piston and piston ring performance so that they work more optimally. Thus, side oil is very influential on the performance of a 2-stroke engine.

class 28/02/2023

The class begin with Prof DAI asking us about our health condition. He was so happy when he found out that all of the students in the class are in good condition. Then Prof DAI told us that when we grown up, all of our own actions it is the responsibility of each of us. After that Prof Adi explain us about pyrolisis. The pyrolysis (or devolatilization) process is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures, often in an inert atmosphere. It involves a change of chemical composition. The word is coined from the Greek-derived elements pyro "fire", "heat", "fever" and lysis "separating".

Pyrolysis is most commonly used in the treatment of organic materials. It is one of the processes involved in charring wood. In general, pyrolysis of organic substances produces volatile products and leaves char, a carbon-rich solid residue. Extreme pyrolysis, which leaves mostly carbon as the residue, is called carbonization. Pyrolysis is considered the first step in the processes of gasification or combustion.

The process is used heavily in the chemical industry, for example, to produce ethylene, many forms of carbon, and other chemicals from petroleum, coal, and even wood, or to produce coke from coal. It is used also in the conversion of natural gas (primarily methane) into hydrogen gas and solid carbon char, recently introduced on an industrial scale. Aspirational applications of pyrolysis would convert biomass into syngas and biochar, waste plastics back into usable oil, or waste into safely disposable substances.

Personal Project Progress 1

I order the material for my personal project. I am using aluminium plate grade 1100, with the specification om 1mm x 10cm x 15cm.

Materials and Apparatus

For this project, what we'll need is: Materials: 1. Aluminum plates 2. Container box (15 L) 3. Drafts 4. Used water bottles 5. Garden hoses 6. Sodium bicarbonate 7. Balloons

Apparatus: 1. Drill 2. Cutters 3. Beaker glass 4. Power supply (12V/5A and 12V/2A) 5. Cathode and anode connectors

Procedures 1. Drill holes on the box container to accommodate pipes, drafts, and a cathode cover. 2. Glue pipes, drafts, and cathode cover into the container 3. Insert cathode steels and anode steels into the drafts 4. Pour the container with water, and mix with sodium bicarbonate 5. Using a 12V/5A power supply, connect the power lines into cathode and anode poles 6. Insert a balloon into the cathode pipe. This will store the hydrogen 7. Turn on the power, and wait 30 minutes for hydrogen to form

Results From the results we can see that the more amperes are put into the system, the more power is produced.

Here is the link to our project PowerPoint presentation: [1]

Introduction ECS 1 class

Assalamualaikum Wr Wb. Hello again, my name is Bagas Tegar Bhadravyata. This is my introduction in ECS 1 class.

What is energy conversion system? Energy conversion systems are generally the heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems, including various components such as air cooling and heating devices, water cooling and heating devices, refrigeration equipment, and heat exchangers. Energy conversion technology refers to any system that converts energy from one form to another. Energy comes in different forms, including heat, work and motion. Moreover, potential energy can be in the form of nuclear, chemical, elastic, gravitational, or radiant energy (also known as light). Energy conversion, also termed as energy transformation, is the process of changing one form of energy into another. Energy conversion occurs everywhere and every minute of the day.

What is the function of energy conversion system? The function of an energy conversion system is to transform one form of energy into another. Energy conversion systems are essential in various industries and applications to harness and utilize different types of energy for various purposes. Some common examples of energy conversion systems include:

Power Plants: Power plants convert various energy sources, such as fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, oil), nuclear energy, renewable sources (solar, wind, hydro, geothermal), and biomass, into electrical energy.

Engines: Internal combustion engines and electric motors convert energy from fuel or electricity into mechanical work to power vehicles, machinery, and equipment.

Renewable Energy Systems: Solar panels convert sunlight into electrical energy, wind turbines convert wind energy into electricity, and hydroelectric dams convert the kinetic energy of flowing water into electrical power.

Batteries: Batteries store electrical energy for later use and convert it back into electricity when needed to power devices, vehicles, or backup systems.

Heat Engines: Heat engines, like steam engines and gas turbines, convert thermal energy into mechanical work and are used in power generation and various industrial processes.

Chemical Reactions: Chemical reactions in fuel cells and other chemical processes can convert chemical energy into electrical energy.

Thermoelectric Generators: These devices convert temperature differences (thermoelectric effect) into electrical energy and are used in niche applications like space probes and waste heat recovery.

Piezoelectric Generators: Piezoelectric materials convert mechanical strain or vibrations into electrical energy, and they can be used in sensors, energy harvesting devices, and some consumer electronics.

Photovoltaic Cells: These devices convert sunlight into electrical energy by utilizing the photovoltaic effect. They are commonly used in solar panels.

The function of an energy conversion system depends on the specific application and the type of energy it is converting. The goal is to efficiently and effectively convert one form of energy into another to meet the needs of various industries and daily life.

ECS 1 Class 1/11/2023

Assalamualaikum Wr Wb. Today we are going to study in CFD Lab in DTM building level 3. In the beginning of the class, Pak DAI took time to review a little bit about ECS 1 class before the mid term exam. Pak DAI explains about various kinds of turbine and reviewing some basic formula from ECS 1 class. There is also Bang Edo who taught us about Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine using CFDSOF and Paraview. At first we are struggling to install the program in our own laptop devices. I also find it a little bit hard to understand the program. But as soon as i started to pay attention to detail. I slowly started to understand the programs.

That is all from me, thank you for reading my page

Assalamualaikum Wr Wb.

ECS 1 Class 8/11/2023

Assalamualaikum Wr Wb. Today, the class started with reviewing about stress analysis. Pak DAI ask question about what process goes through when inventor doing stress analysis. Pak DAI said, inventor is a basic from numerical method. After that, we talk about force. There are two kind of force, static and dynamic.

E Bike project

Me and Amato does a few research for the e bike project. We find out what parts are needed to build a proper e bike. Building an electric bike (e-bike) involves several key components. Here's a basic list of components you would typically need:

Bicycle Frame: Choose a frame that is suitable for your intended use and can accommodate the necessary components.

Motor: Select an electric motor designed for bicycles. There are various types, including hub motors (front or rear wheel) and mid-drive motors. Hub motors are easier to install, while mid-drive motors offer better performance on varied terrain.

Battery: Choose a rechargeable lithium-ion battery pack. The capacity (measured in watt-hours, Wh) and voltage should match your motor specifications and riding preferences. Battery placement on the frame is also a consideration.

Motor Controller: This device regulates the power flow from the battery to the motor. It interprets signals from the throttle or pedal assist system and adjusts the power output accordingly.

Throttle or Pedal Assist System: Decide whether you want a throttle, which allows manual control of the motor's power, or a pedal assist system (pedelec) that automatically adjusts the assistance based on your pedaling.

Display/Control Unit: This component shows important information such as speed, battery level, and mode. It's often integrated with the controls for adjusting assistance levels.

Wiring and Connectors: High-quality wiring and connectors are crucial for safety and performance. Make sure they are compatible with the components you're using.

Brakes: Consider upgrading your brakes to handle the additional speed and weight of an e-bike. Some electric bike kits come with brake sensors that cut power to the motor when the brakes are applied.

Throttle or Pedal Assist Sensor: For throttle-controlled systems, a throttle sensor is needed. For pedal-assist systems, a sensor measures the force applied to the pedals and adjusts the motor assistance accordingly.

Charger: Purchase a charger compatible with your battery. Charging times depend on the battery capacity and charger specifications.

Lights and Reflectors: Ensure your e-bike is equipped with proper lighting and reflectors to enhance visibility, especially if you plan to ride at night.

Kickstand: An e-bike can be heavier than a regular bike, so a sturdy kickstand is essential for stability.

Fenders and Mudguards: Depending on your local weather conditions, fenders and mudguards can help keep you and your e-bike clean and dry.

Gearing System: Consider the gearing system on your e-bike, especially if you're using a mid-drive motor. It's essential to have a compatible and durable gearing setup.

Tires: Choose tires suitable for the type of riding you'll be doing, considering factors like terrain and weather conditions.

When building an e-bike, it's important to ensure compatibility among all components and, if in doubt, consult with experts or the manufacturers of the components you're using. Additionally, be aware of any local regulations regarding the use of electric bikes, as they can vary by location.

Working Principle and Theoretical Calculation of Centrifugal Fan

Assalamualaikum Wr Wb. Hello everyone, here is the link of my personal video explaining about centrifugal fan.

A centrifugal fan, also known as a radial fan or a centrifugal blower, is a mechanical device that moves air or other gases in a circular motion. It operates based on the principles of centrifugal force, which is the force that acts outward from the center of rotation.

The basic components of a centrifugal fan include an impeller, a housing or casing, and an inlet and outlet. Here's how it generally works:

Impeller: The impeller is a rotating disk with blades or vanes attached to it. It is typically mounted on a shaft and is responsible for drawing air into the fan and then accelerating and redirecting it outward.

Inlet: The fan draws air or gas into the inlet, and the rotating impeller imparts kinetic energy to the air particles. As the impeller rotates, it creates a low-pressure zone at the center, causing the air to be drawn into the fan.

Acceleration: As the air moves through the impeller, the spinning blades accelerate the air radially outward. The kinetic energy imparted to the air causes it to move in a tangential direction.

Outlet: The accelerated air is then discharged through the outlet of the fan housing. The outlet may be designed in a specific way to control the flow of air and increase efficiency.

Centrifugal Force: The outward movement of air is due to centrifugal force, which is the apparent force that acts on the air particles as they are forced to move in a circular path. This force overcomes the pressure difference, and the air is expelled through the outlet.

Centrifugal fans are particularly useful in applications where a constant and high flow rate of air is required, such as in ventilation systems, air conditioning units, and industrial processes. They are known for their ability to handle a wide range of air volumes and pressures, and their design allows for efficient operation in various applications. The specific design and characteristics of a centrifugal fan can vary based on its intended use and the requirements of the system it is a part of.

Error creating thumbnail: /bin/bash: /usr/bin/convert: No such file or directory Error code: 127

Ecs 1 Class 27/11/2023

Today we went to ccit workshop. Right there we learn about turbo machinery. Bang Edo explain us about what is the difference between motion machine and work machine.

Turbomachinery refers to machines that transfer energy between a rotor and a fluid, including both gases and liquids. These machines are widely used in various industries to either extract energy from a fluid stream (as in the case of turbines) or impart energy to a fluid stream (as in the case of pumps and compressors).

The two primary types of turbomachinery are turbines and compressors. Turbines convert the energy of a fluid stream into mechanical energy, often used to generate electricity in power plants or propel aircraft. Compressors, on the other hand, increase the pressure of a fluid, commonly used in applications like air compression in gas turbines, refrigeration systems, and various industrial processes.

Here are some key types of turbomachinery:


Steam Turbines: Convert the energy of high-pressure steam into mechanical energy. Gas Turbines: Extract energy from the combustion of fuel and air mixture to produce mechanical energy. Hydraulic Turbines: Convert the energy of flowing water or other hydraulic fluids into mechanical energy. Compressors:

Centrifugal Compressors: Use a rotating impeller to increase the velocity of a fluid, which is then converted into pressure. Axial Compressors: Propel fluid through a series of rotating and stationary blades to compress it. Reciprocating Compressors: Use a piston-cylinder arrangement to compress the fluid. Turbomachinery plays a crucial role in various industries, including power generation, aviation, oil and gas, chemical processing, and more. Designing and optimizing turbomachinery require a deep understanding of fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanical engineering principles.

Researchers and engineers continually work on improving the efficiency, reliability, and performance of turbomachinery to meet the growing demands of energy and industrial applications. Computational tools, such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), are commonly employed in the design and analysis of turbomachinery components.

Certainly! Let's delve into a theoretical explanation of turbomachinery, covering key concepts and components:

Basics of Turbomachinery: Rotor and Stator:

Rotor: The rotating part of the turbomachinery, such as blades in a turbine or compressor. Stator: The stationary part that guides the fluid flow and modifies its properties before it reaches the rotor. Working Principle:

Turbines: Extract energy from a fluid and convert it into mechanical work. For example, steam turbines extract energy from high-pressure steam. Compressors: Add energy to a fluid, increasing its pressure. Gas compressors, for instance, raise the pressure of a gas. Turbines: Steam Turbines:

Steam enters at high pressure and high temperature. It expands through the turbine blades, losing pressure and gaining velocity. The kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy as the steam causes the rotor to spin. Gas Turbines:

Air is compressed in the compressor section. Fuel is added and ignited, producing a high-velocity, high-temperature gas. This high-energy gas expands through the turbine, driving the rotor and producing mechanical work. Hydraulic Turbines:

Water or another hydraulic fluid enters the turbine. The kinetic energy of the fluid is converted into mechanical energy as it passes through the turbine blades. Compressors: Centrifugal Compressors:

Air or gas enters the compressor and is directed to the center by the rotating impeller. The kinetic energy is converted into pressure energy as the fluid is forced outward. Axial Compressors:

Air flows parallel to the axis of rotation. The compressor consists of multiple rows of rotating and stationary blades that progressively compress the fluid. Reciprocating Compressors:

Use a piston-cylinder arrangement. The piston compresses the fluid when it moves in the cylinder. Key Performance Parameters: Efficiency:

Turbomachinery efficiency is the ratio of actual work output to the theoretical maximum work output. Pressure Ratio:

The ratio of the discharge pressure to the suction pressure in a compressor. Specific Speed:

A dimensionless parameter that characterizes the shape of a turbomachine and helps in scaling. Challenges and Considerations: Cavitation (for hydraulic turbines):

Formation and collapse of vapor bubbles in a liquid due to pressure variations. Blade Design:

Optimal blade design is critical for efficiency and performance. Heat Transfer:

Managing heat transfer is crucial to prevent damage and maintain efficiency. Computational Tools: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD):

Used for simulation and analysis of fluid flow within turbomachinery. Finite Element Analysis (FEA):

Assesses structural integrity and mechanical behavior of turbomachinery components. Understanding these theoretical aspects is fundamental to designing, optimizing, and maintaining efficient turbomachinery systems across various industries.

Question: What?

What is the function of turbo?

The term "turbo" is often associated with turbochargers and turbocharging systems in the context of internal combustion engines. The primary function of a turbocharger is to increase the efficiency and power output of an engine by compressing the incoming air before it enters the combustion chamber. Here's how it works:

Turbocharger Function in Internal Combustion Engines: Air Compression:

A turbocharger consists of two main components: a turbine and a compressor. The turbine is positioned in the exhaust stream of the engine. As exhaust gases exit the engine cylinders, they flow over the turbine blades, causing the turbine to spin. Link to Compressor:

The turbine and compressor are connected on a common shaft. As the turbine spins, it drives the compressor. Air Intake:

The compressor is located on the intake side of the engine, drawing in ambient air. The spinning compressor compresses this incoming air before it enters the engine's combustion chamber. Increased Air Density:

Compressing the air increases its density. Higher air density allows for a larger volume of air to enter the combustion chamber, enabling more fuel to be burned. Improved Combustion:

With more fuel and compressed air, the combustion process is more efficient. This results in increased power output and improved engine performance. Benefits of Turbocharging: Increased Power Output:

Turbocharging allows engines to produce more power without increasing their size. This is particularly valuable in applications where space and weight are critical factors, such as in automotive and aviation. Improved Fuel Efficiency:

By increasing the efficiency of combustion, turbochargers can contribute to better fuel efficiency. This is because more of the energy in the fuel is effectively converted into mechanical work. Downsizing Engines:

Turbocharging enables manufacturers to use smaller engines that still deliver high power outputs. This downsizing trend has become common in the automotive industry as a strategy to improve fuel efficiency without sacrificing performance. Emissions Reduction:

Turbocharging can contribute to reducing emissions by allowing for the use of smaller, more fuel-efficient engines that still meet performance requirements. While turbocharging is most commonly associated with internal combustion engines, the term "turbo" might also be used in other contexts. For example, it can be part of the name of certain machines or systems that use turbines or similar components to achieve specific functions.

Steam Turbine Project

Assalamualaikum wr wb. This my page about our steam turbine project and im going to show my results from the project

Basic Theory

A steam turbine is a device that converts the thermal energy of pressurized steam into mechanical energy, which can then be used to generate electricity or perform other mechanical work. Here are the basic principles and components of a steam turbine:

Basic Principle:

Steam turbines operate on the principle of thermodynamics, specifically the conversion of heat energy into mechanical energy. The process involves the expansion of high-pressure, high-temperature steam through a series of stationary and rotating blades, causing the rotor to turn and generate mechanical work. Components:

Steam Generator/Boiler: The process begins in a steam generator or boiler where water is heated to produce high-pressure steam. Turbine Rotor: The rotor is a shaft with a series of blades attached to it. When steam is directed onto these blades, it causes the rotor to spin. Stator/Nozzles: Stationary blades, also known as nozzles, guide the steam onto the rotating blades of the rotor. They serve to control the direction and speed of the steam flow. Casing: The turbine is enclosed in a casing to contain and direct the steam flow. It also houses the various components and helps maintain the pressure difference. Working Principle:

Steam is admitted into the turbine through nozzles, converting its pressure energy into kinetic energy. The high-velocity steam then strikes the rotor blades, causing the rotor to spin. As the steam expands and loses energy, it exits the rotor and enters a series of low-pressure stages, each consisting of a set of stationary and rotating blades. The steam goes through multiple stages to extract the maximum energy from it, improving the overall efficiency of the turbine. Types of Steam Turbines:

Impulse Turbines: Steam expands in fixed nozzles, and the high-velocity jet of steam impacts the rotor blades, causing them to rotate. Reaction Turbines: Steam expands both in the fixed nozzles and on the moving blades. This type is more common in power generation. Condensing vs. Non-Condensing:

Condensing Turbines: These turbines exhaust steam into a condenser, where it is condensed back into water. This type is common in power plants. Non-Condensing Turbines: The exhaust steam is released to the atmosphere without condensation. These turbines are used in applications where the condensed steam is not required. Applications:

Steam turbines are widely used for power generation in thermal power plants, including coal, gas, and nuclear power plants. They are also used in various industrial processes, such as petrochemical and manufacturing facilities, where mechanical power is required. Understanding the basic theory of steam turbines is crucial for designing efficient power generation systems and optimizing their performance.

Rankine Cycle

The Rankine cycle is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle that represents the operating principles of steam power plants. It is named after the Scottish engineer William John Macquorn Rankine, who developed it in the 19th century. The Rankine cycle is the fundamental operating cycle for steam turbine power plants used in electricity generation. Here are the key stages of the Rankine cycle:

Isentropic Compression (Process 1-2):

The cycle begins with the compression of saturated liquid water (typically at low pressure) to high-pressure, high-temperature steam. This process is usually modeled as an isentropic (constant entropy) compression process. Isobaric Heat Addition (Process 2-3):

The high-pressure steam then enters a boiler, where it absorbs heat at constant pressure. This causes the steam to undergo an isobaric (constant pressure) phase change from liquid to vapor. The result is superheated steam at a high temperature and pressure. Isentropic Expansion in the Turbine (Process 3-4):

The high-pressure, high-temperature steam is directed to a turbine. In the turbine, the steam undergoes an isentropic expansion, converting its high-pressure and high-temperature energy into mechanical work. The turbine typically drives a generator, producing electricity. Isobaric Heat Rejection (Process 4-1):

After the steam has passed through the turbine, it enters a condenser, where it releases heat to a cooling medium (usually water). This causes the steam to condense back into liquid form at constant pressure. Isentropic Pumping (Process 1-2):

The condensed liquid is then pumped back to the boiler, completing the cycle. The pump work is often modeled as an isentropic process. The Rankine cycle is a closed loop, and the entire process is thermodynamically reversible. In real-world applications, practical limitations and imperfections in equipment make the actual performance of power plants somewhat different from the ideal Rankine cycle.

There are variations of the Rankine cycle, including the supercritical Rankine cycle, which operates above the critical point of water, and the regenerative Rankine cycle, which incorporates feedwater heaters to improve efficiency.

The Rankine cycle forms the basis for the operation of steam power plants, such as coal-fired, natural gas, and nuclear power plants, where steam turbines are employed for electricity generation.


To get the data and calculation, each one of us must have one specific volume and specific time. My volume was 750 ml and my time is 16,25 sec. with the help from microsoft excel and Bena, i got the result shown.

q_in (J) 2204,589 q_out (J) -2032,337029 W_turbine (J) -614,1599705 W_pump (J) 441,908 W_net (J) 172,2519705 P_in (W) 20395,75385 F_in (W) 101750,2615 P_out (W) -28345,84479 F_out (W) -93800,17059 Efficiency 7,813337113 Efficiency 7,813337113

Thats all from me, thank you and assalamualaikum wr.wb.

Concious Effort

My concious effort that i learn from this experiment is we must try as hard as we can and never give up about the things that we do. If we put enough efforts and prayers, insyaallah everything will have a good results.


Thank god i finish this semester with full efforts, full concious thingking and full prayers. I learn alot from this semester, without enough effort and enough prayers, it is really hard to achieved what what we wanted to get. Insyaallah in this semester, the results is as good as my efforts and prayers. Assalamualaikum Wr.Wb