Kunjungan Lab CCIT
Alat Mengukur Tekanan
Pada hari sabtu, 4 Maret 2023, saya mengunjungi Lab CCIT bersama teman-teman saya
Kami mempelajari beberapa alat untuk mengukur tekanan, yaitu:
1) Manometer Analog
2) Manometer U
3) Pressure Transducer
1. Manometer Analog
Manometer Analog merupakan alat untuk mengukur tekanan dengan prinsip tekanan hidrostatis yaitu, bekerja dengan cara mengukur perbedaan tinggi kolom cairan pada di dalam tabung yang bekerja pada kedua ujungnnya. Alat ini terdiri dari tabung yang berisi fluida seperti air atau air raksa, skala pengukuran, serta selang untuk menghubungkan manometer ke sumber tekanannya sebanyak dua buah.
2. Manometer U
Manometer U adalah salah satu alat untuk mengukur tekanan dengan mengukur pada dua titik dalam sistem fluida. Cara kerja dari alat ini ialah dengan mengukur perbedaan tekanan pada pipa yang berbentuk U dengan mengukur perbedaan ketinggian pada salah satu lengan pipa tersebut. Pada pipa manometer U diisi dengan cairan seperti air ataupun air raksa yang mana salah satu lubang pada pipa U terbuka untuk mendapatkan tekanan atmosfer, sedangkan lubang yang lainnya dihungkan ke sistem yang sedang diukur.
Dari cara kerja tersebut kita dapat mengitung perbedaan tekanan yang dihasilkan dari manometer U dengan persamaan
P(gas) = P(atm) + ρ.g.Δh
P(gas) - P(atm) = ρ.g.Δh
ΔP = ρ.g.Δh
3. Pressure Transducer
Pressure Transducer merupakan alat elektronik untuk mengukur tekanan serta mengubah pembacaan tekanan menjadi sinyal listrik yang bisa digunakan untuk mengontrol serta mengakuisisi data.
Manometer U dengan tekanan 300 Pa maka akan menyebabkan peningkatan tekanan h ...untuk masing2 fluida air, raksa, minyak.
P = 300 Pa
ρ(air) = 1000 kg/m^3
ρ(raksa) = 13.600 kg/m^3
ρ(minyak) = 800 kg/m^3
g = 9,81 m/s^2
ΔP = ρ.g.Δh
Δh = ΔP/ρ.g
h = 300/1000 x 9,81
h = 0,0306 m => 3,06 cm
h = 300/13.600 x 9,81
h = 0,00225 m => 0,22 cm
h = 300/800 x 9,81
h = 0,0382 m => 3,82 cm
Dari hasil perhitungan di atas, didapatkan bahwa tekanan sebesar 300 Pa pada sistem fluida yang dihubungkan dengan manometer U akan memberikan ketinggian fluida pada air, raksa, dan minyak masing-masing sebesar sekitar 3,06 cm, 0,22 cm, 3,82 cm. Maka dari itu, jika fluida memiliki densitas yang semakin tinggi maka kemampuan fluida untuk bergerak akan semakin terbatas jika diberikan jumlah tekanan yang sama.
What are tools can be used to measure a pressure
There are several tools that can be used to measure pressure. Some of the commonly used tools include:
Manometer: This is a simple device used to measure pressure differences between two points. It consists of a U-shaped tube filled with a liquid such as water or mercury. The difference in the height of the liquid in the two arms of the U-tube is directly proportional to the pressure difference between the two points.
Pressure gauge: This is a mechanical device that measures the pressure of a gas or liquid. The gauge typically consists of a Bourdon tube, which is a curved tube that changes shape when pressure is applied. This movement is transmitted to a pointer that indicates the pressure on a scale.
Barometer: This is a device used to measure atmospheric pressure. It consists of a glass tube filled with mercury that is inverted into a basin of mercury. The weight of the mercury in the tube creates a vacuum above it, and the pressure of the atmosphere pushes down on the surface of the mercury in the basin, causing it to rise in the tube.
Pressure transducer: This is an electronic device that converts pressure into an electrical signal. The transducer typically consists of a diaphragm that flexes in response to pressure changes. This movement is detected by a strain gauge, which generates an electrical signal proportional to the pressure.
Digital manometer: This is an electronic device that measures pressure using a pressure sensor and displays the results on a digital display. These devices are often small, portable, and easy to use, making them popular in a variety of applications.
Vacuum gauge: This is a device used to measure the pressure of a vacuum. The gauge typically consists of a Bourdon tube or a diaphragm that changes shape in response to changes in the pressure of the vacuum. The movement is transmitted to a pointer that indicates the pressure on a scale.
What is common tool to measure the pressure
The most common tool used to measure pressure is a pressure gauge. Pressure gauges are mechanical instruments that measure the pressure of gases or liquids. They typically consist of a Bourdon tube, which is a curved tube that changes shape when pressure is applied. This movement is transmitted to a pointer that indicates the pressure on a scale. Pressure gauges are widely used in industries such as manufacturing, construction, and transportation to monitor and control pressure in various systems and equipment. They are also commonly used in households for measuring tire pressure and gas pressure in stoves and grills.
what do you know about analog manometer and manometer U-tube?
An analog manometer and a U-tube manometer are both types of manometers that are used to measure pressure. Here is a brief overview of each:
Analog Manometer: An analog manometer is a simple and affordable instrument used to measure the pressure of gases and liquids. It consists of a tube filled with a fluid, typically oil, and a scale that is used to read the pressure. The pressure is measured by comparing the height of the fluid in the tube to the scale. Analog manometers can be used for measuring low-pressure gases and liquids in various industries, such as HVAC, refrigeration, and automotive.
Manometer U-tube: A U-tube manometer is a type of analog manometer that uses a U-shaped glass tube filled with a fluid, typically water or mercury. The two arms of the U-tube are connected to the pressure source being measured, and the pressure difference between the two arms is measured by the difference in the height of the fluid in the two arms. The height difference is typically measured using a ruler or a scale that is placed next to the tube. U-tube manometers are commonly used in laboratory settings to measure low-pressure gases and liquids, as well as to calibrate other pressure measuring devices. They can also be used in industrial settings for measuring pressure in piping systems and tanks.
What kind of fluid can be used to measure the pressure in manometer especially U-tube manometer
A variety of fluids can be used to measure pressure in a manometer, including liquids and gases. The choice of fluid will depend on the specific application and the pressure range being measured.
In U-tube manometers, commonly used fluids include:
Water: Water is a commonly used fluid for low-pressure measurements because it is inexpensive, readily available, and non-toxic.
Mercury: Mercury is a dense, heavy fluid that is commonly used for measuring high-pressure gas or liquid systems. However, it is toxic, and its use is restricted in some applications.
Oil: Oil is another common fluid used in manometers because it is lightweight, does not evaporate easily, and is compatible with most materials. However, its low density limits its use to low-pressure measurements.
Glycerin: Glycerin is a common fluid used in manometers because it has a high viscosity and a low freezing point, making it suitable for low-temperature applications.
The choice of fluid will depend on factors such as the required accuracy, the range of pressures to be measured, and the compatibility with the materials being used. It is important to choose a fluid that is appropriate for the specific application and to follow appropriate safety protocols when handling the fluid.
How can we measure the pressure in u-tube manometer
To measure pressure in a U-tube manometer, follow these steps:
Connect the manometer to the system being measured: The U-tube manometer has two arms, one of which is connected to the system being measured, and the other is open to the atmosphere.
Fill the manometer with the appropriate fluid: Fill the U-tube with the appropriate fluid until it reaches a point where both arms of the tube are at the same level.
Measure the pressure difference: Measure the difference in height of the fluid in the two arms of the manometer using a ruler or a scale. The difference in height between the two arms is proportional to the pressure difference between the system being measured and the atmospheric pressure.
Calculate the pressure: Use the formula P = ρgh to calculate the pressure, where P is the pressure difference, ρ is the density of the fluid, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and h is the height difference between the two arms of the manometer.
Alternatively, some U-tube manometers have a scale printed on the tube, making it easier to read the pressure directly from the scale.
It is important to note that U-tube manometers measure gauge pressure, which is the difference between the pressure being measured and the atmospheric pressure. If absolute pressure is required, it is necessary to add the atmospheric pressure to the gauge pressure.