Julian Jensen Purnomo

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Hello everyone! My name is Julian Jensen Purnomo, usually called Julian. My class is at Numerical Method 03 and my NPM is 2106732834


I am currently on a journey to study Numerical Method with concious learning, so that I can improve my conciousness and become a better human.

Design and Optimization of 1 Litre Pressurized Hydrogen (8 Bar) Storage

So today, I asked ChatGPT a few questions and this is what i can summarize and learn:


-What is Hydrogen? Hydrogen is a chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. It is the lightest and most abundant element in the universe, making up about 75% of its elemental mass. Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas in its pure form.

Hydrogen is unique because it has only one proton and one electron, making it the simplest and smallest atom. It is located in the first group of the periodic table, known as the alkali metals, but it is often placed separately due to its unique properties.

In nature, hydrogen is commonly found in combination with other elements, such as oxygen in water (H2O) or carbon in hydrocarbons. It is also present in the atmosphere, although in relatively small amounts. Hydrogen can be extracted from these sources through various methods, such as electrolysis of water or steam methane reforming.

Hydrogen has a wide range of applications. It is used as a fuel for rockets and in the production of ammonia for fertilizers. It can be used as a clean energy carrier and fuel source for fuel cells, which convert hydrogen into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen. Hydrogen fuel cells are being explored as a potential alternative to fossil fuels in vehicles and power generation.


This is LMP (Lemans Prototype) Car is powered by Hydrogen.

-How can we Store Hydrogen? Hydrogen can be stored in different forms, depending on the intended application and storage duration. Here are some common methods of hydrogen storage:

Compressed Gas: Hydrogen gas can be stored under high pressure in specially designed tanks or cylinders. The gas is compressed to pressures ranging from 5,000 to 10,000 psi (pounds per square inch). Compressed gas storage is commonly used for short-term applications and in situations where a relatively small amount of hydrogen is needed.

Liquid Hydrogen: At extremely low temperatures below -252.87°C (-423.17°F), hydrogen can be converted into a liquid state. Liquid hydrogen has a higher energy density compared to compressed gas, allowing for more hydrogen to be stored in a given volume. It is stored in cryogenic tanks that are well-insulated to maintain the low temperatures required.


This is a liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank.

Metal Hydrides: Hydrogen can be stored in certain metals or alloys, forming compounds known as metal hydrides. These materials have the ability to absorb and release hydrogen. Metal hydrides offer a safe and compact storage option, particularly for stationary and portable applications. However, they may have limited storage capacity and can be relatively heavy.

Chemical Hydrides: Chemical hydrides are compounds that release hydrogen when they undergo a chemical reaction. They can store a high amount of hydrogen per unit weight, but the release and reabsorption of hydrogen often require specific conditions, such as heating or the use of catalysts.

Carbon-Based Materials: Hydrogen can be stored within certain carbon-based materials, such as activated carbon or carbon nanotubes. These materials have a high surface area and can adsorb hydrogen molecules, effectively storing them within their structure. Research is ongoing to develop efficient and cost-effective carbon-based storage systems.

Each storage method has its advantages and limitations, and the choice depends on factors like storage capacity, safety, cost, and application requirements. Developing efficient and practical hydrogen storage systems is an important area of research to facilitate the widespread adoption of hydrogen as an energy carrier.

Design Variables:

1. Container Material: The material used for the storage container, such as carbon fiber, metal alloy, or composite materials.

2. Container Shape: The shape of the storage container, which can affect its volume and overall dimensions.

3. Operating Pressure: The pressure at which the hydrogen is stored in the container.

4. Insulation: The type and thickness of insulation used to minimize heat transfer and maintain the desired temperature inside the container.

5. Safety Features: Various safety mechanisms and features incorporated into the design, such as pressure relief valves, burst discs, and leak detection systems.

Objective Function:

The objective function for a 1-liter hydrogen storage system can vary depending on the specific application. However, some possible objective functions could be:

1. Maximizing Hydrogen Storage Capacity: The objective could be to maximize the amount of hydrogen that can be stored within the given 1-liter volume.

2. Minimizing Weight: The objective could be to minimize the weight of the storage system, which is particularly important for portable applications.

3. Maximizing Safety: The objective could be to ensure the safety of the storage system by minimizing the risk of leaks, explosions, or other hazards.

4. Maximizing Energy Density: The objective could be to maximize the energy stored per unit volume, considering both the hydrogen storage capacity and the weight of the system.


1. Volume Constraint: The total volume of the storage system should not exceed 1 liter.

2. Pressure Constraint: The storage system should operate within a specified pressure range, taking into account safety factors and regulatory requirements.

3. Temperature Constraint: The temperature inside the storage system should be maintained within a certain range to prevent hydrogen leakage or degradation of the container material.

4. Material Strength Constraint: The container material should have sufficient strength to withstand the internal pressure and external stresses during operation.

5. Safety Constraint: The storage system should incorporate necessary safety features to prevent accidents or mitigate potential hazards associated with hydrogen storage.

6. Cost Constraint: The design should consider cost limitations and aim for an economically viable solution.

Note: The specific design variables, objective function, and constraints can vary based on the intended application, safety standards, and technological advancements at the time of development.

So, this is a python code for for calculating the design according to the constraints numerically.

Codingan hlmn1.PNG Codingan hlmn2.PNG

And, this is my initial design for 1 litre hydrogen storage:

Carbon hydrogen tank.PNG

I design handles, that improved the portability and mobility of the tank. This tank also uses a valve that can be opened and closed so that we can extract and refill hydrogen from the tank easily. The material is carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). Here are a few reasons why CFRP is often chosen for hydrogen storage:

1. High Strength-to-Weight Ratio: CFRP exhibits excellent strength-to-weight ratio, meaning it provides high strength while being relatively lightweight. This is crucial for hydrogen storage tanks, especially in applications where weight reduction is important, such as in automotive or aerospace industries.

2. Corrosion Resistance: CFRP is highly resistant to corrosion, which is crucial when storing hydrogen. Hydrogen can cause embrittlement and degradation in certain materials, but CFRP remains resistant to such degradation, ensuring the long-term integrity and safety of the storage tank.

3. Low Permeability: CFRP has low permeability to hydrogen gas, meaning it prevents or minimizes hydrogen molecules from diffusing through the material. This is vital for maintaining the desired pressure and preventing leaks, ensuring the efficient storage of hydrogen.

4. Fatigue Resistance: CFRP has excellent fatigue resistance, which is important for hydrogen storage tanks that undergo cyclic loading due to pressure changes. It can withstand repeated loading and unloading cycles without significant degradation or loss of performance.

5. Manufacturing Flexibility: CFRP can be fabricated into various shapes and sizes, allowing for design flexibility in creating hydrogen storage tanks that fit specific requirements. It can be molded, wrapped, or layered to achieve the desired form, making it suitable for different applications.

6. Safety Considerations: CFRP offers good safety features for hydrogen storage tanks. It has a higher tolerance to fracture and better damage tolerance compared to some other materials, reducing the risk of sudden failures or catastrophic ruptures.

Application of Numerical Method in 1 Litre Hydrogen Storage Design Optimization

Numerical methods play a crucial role in the design and analysis of hydrogen storage systems. Hydrogen storage is a critical aspect of hydrogen energy systems, as it allows for the efficient storage and release of hydrogen fuel for various applications. Numerical methods provide tools and techniques to model, simulate, and optimize hydrogen storage systems. Here are some specific applications of numerical methods in hydrogen storage design:

1. Thermodynamic Modeling: Numerical methods can be used to simulate the thermodynamic behavior of hydrogen storage materials and systems. Equations of state, such as the Van der Waals equation or the Peng-Robinson equation, can be numerically solved to predict the pressure, temperature, and volume relationships of hydrogen under different storage conditions.

2. Material Characterization: Numerical simulations can help evaluate the properties of different hydrogen storage materials, such as metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, or carbon-based materials. By using computational methods, researchers can investigate the adsorption and desorption kinetics, absorption capacities, and thermodynamic properties of these materials.

3. Reactor Design and Optimization: Numerical methods enable the design and optimization of hydrogen storage reactors or systems. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can be employed to study the flow behavior, heat transfer, and mass transport phenomena within storage vessels, adsorbents, or catalytic reactors. This information can guide the design of efficient storage systems with improved hydrogen uptake and release characteristics.

4. Kinetic Modeling: Numerical techniques can be used to develop kinetic models that describe the hydrogen adsorption and desorption processes within storage materials. These models can incorporate reaction mechanisms, diffusion coefficients, and surface reactions to predict the rate at which hydrogen can be stored or released. Numerical methods, such as finite element analysis or finite difference methods, can solve the resulting differential equations to determine the kinetics of the system.

5. Optimization and Parameter Estimation: Numerical optimization algorithms can be employed to optimize the design of hydrogen storage systems. These methods can explore different configurations, materials, operating conditions, and geometries to identify the optimal system parameters that maximize hydrogen storage capacity, minimize energy requirements, or improve safety aspects.

Overall, numerical methods provide powerful tools for understanding and improving the design of hydrogen storage systems. By combining theoretical models with numerical simulations, engineers and researchers can enhance the efficiency, reliability, and performance of hydrogen storage technologies, accelerating the adoption of hydrogen as a sustainable energy carrier.

What is Conscious Learning Effort?

Conscious effort in learning refers to the intentional and focused mental and physical exertion an individual puts into acquiring new knowledge, skills, or understanding. It involves actively engaging in the learning process and directing one's attention and energy towards the task at hand. Here are some aspects of conscious effort in learning:

1. Attention: Conscious effort requires directing your attention to the subject or skill you are trying to learn. It involves being fully present and actively engaging with the material, whether it's reading, listening, observing, or practicing.

2. Motivation: Having a strong motivation and desire to learn is essential for conscious effort. When you are motivated, you are more likely to invest time and energy into understanding and retaining the information effectively.

3. Goal setting: Setting clear and achievable goals helps in maintaining focus and guiding your efforts. Breaking down the learning process into smaller, manageable tasks allows you to track your progress and stay motivated.

4. Practice and repetition: Conscious effort often involves deliberate practice and repetition to reinforce learning. By engaging in regular practice sessions and reviewing the material repeatedly, you strengthen your understanding and consolidate the knowledge or skill.

5. Active learning strategies: Adopting active learning strategies promotes conscious effort. These strategies include asking questions, participating in discussions, summarizing information in your own words, teaching others, and seeking opportunities for hands-on application of knowledge.

6. Monitoring and reflection: Being aware of your learning process and monitoring your progress is an important aspect of conscious effort. Regularly reflecting on what you have learned, identifying areas of improvement, and adjusting your learning strategies accordingly can enhance your learning outcomes.

7. Time management: Allocating dedicated time for learning and minimizing distractions is crucial. Creating a structured schedule and making learning a priority helps you devote focused time and effort to the task.

Overall, conscious effort in learning involves active engagement, motivation, goal setting, deliberate practice, reflection, and effective time management. By employing these strategies, individuals can enhance their learning experiences and achieve better outcomes in acquiring new knowledge and skills.